forall x: an introduction to formal logic
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In formal logic, sentences and arguments are translated into mathematical languages with well-defined properties. If all goes well, properties of the argument that were hard to discern become clearer. This text describes two formal languages which have been of special importance to philosophers: truth-functional sentential logic and quantified predicate logic. The book covers translation, formal semantics, and proof theory for both languages.This can be used as the textbook for a semester long course in logic, for a unit on logic, or for self-directed study. Each chapter contains practice exercises; solutions to selected exercises appear in an appendix.The author is an assistant professor of philosophy at the University at Albany, SUNY.For more information, see the forall x homepage and the author's homepage.