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On the Motion of Animals By Aristotle
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This text is Aristotle’s general principles on the motion of animals. Aristotle attempts to combine a physiological explanation of animal locomotion in terms of spirit or pneuma and with a... More > psychological account in terms of desire and thought, which also includes imagination and perception. He thinks it possible to account for animal movements purely in terms of the physical events taking place in the body, while at the same time he wants to explain action, at a philosophical or analytical level, by way of the interaction of desires and beliefs.< Less
Rhetoric By Aristotle
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The Rhetoric was developed by Aristotle during two periods when he was seconded to Plato in the Academy, and when he was running his own school, the Lyceum. Aristotle is generally credited with... More > developing the basics of the system of rhetoric that influenced the development of rhetorical theory from ancient through modern times. One of the most important contributions of Aristotle's approach was that he identified rhetoric as one of the three key elements along with logic and dialectic of philosophy. According to Aristotle, logic is concerned with reasoning to reach scientific certainty. Dialectic is a tool for philosophical debate; it is a means for skilled audiences to test probable knowledge in order to learn. Rhetoric is a tool for practical debate; it is a means for persuading a general audience using probable knowledge to resolve practical issues. Dialectic and rhetoric create a partnership for a system of persuasion based on knowledge instead of upon manipulation and omission.< Less
The History of Animals By Aristotle
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Biology was a natural pursuit for Aristotle, given his family's medical background. In the zoological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the 19th century. On... More > his work in The History of Animals, Aristotle draws the most important distinctions between animals with and without blood. Animals that reproducing offspring within the female's body, as generally the case with mammals and reproducing through the hatching of eggs. He shed some insights into the questions of reproduction and heredity. He also believed that no organ was given to an animal without a purpose. Final characteristics were those essential to an animal species, while variable characteristics consisted of qualities that develop rather than being naturally endowed.< Less
The Politcs By Aristotle
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Aristotle's Politics is a work of political philosophy. The end of the Nicomachean Ethics declared that the inquiry into ethics necessarily follows into politics, and the two works are frequently... More > considered to be parts of a larger treatise, or perhaps connected lectures, dealing with the "philosophy of human affairs." After studying a number of real and theoretical city-state's constitutions, Aristotle classified them according to various criteria. On one side stand the true (or good) constitutions, which are considered such because they aim for the common good, and on the other side the perverted (or deviant) ones, considered such because they aim for the well being of only a part of the city. The constitutions are then sorted according to the "number" of those who participate to the magistracies: one, a few, or many.< Less
Poetics By Aristotle
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Aristotle's (c. 335 BCE ) Poetics is the earliest-surviving work of dramatic theory and the first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory. In it, Aristotle offers an account of what... More > he calls "poetry" (a term which in Greek literally means "making" and in this context includes drama—comedy, tragedy, and the satyr play—as well as lyric poetry, epic poetry, and the dithyramb). He examines its "first principles" and identifies its genres and basic elements. His analysis of tragedy constitutes the core of the discussion. The Poetics is specifically concerned with drama. At some point, Aristotle's original work was divided in two, each "book" written on a separate roll of papyrus. Only the first part–that which focuses on tragedy–survives. The lost second part addressed comedy.< Less
The Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle
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The work, which plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics, consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum,... More > which were either edited by or dedicated to Aristotle's son, Nicomachus. The Nicomachean Ethics is widely considered one of the most important historical philosophical works, and had an important impact upon the European Middle Ages, becoming one of the core works of medieval philosophy.< Less
Prior Analytics By Aristotle & A. J. Jenkinson
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“We must not always seek to set out the terms a single word: for we shall often have complexes of words to which a single name is not given.” -Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC), is one of most... More > important philosophers of all time and remain a fountain of inspiration for modern thinkers. His works included logic, physics, politics, metaphysics, rhetoric and zoology, biology, poetic tragedy and ethics that are still relevant today. He also preferred to define things in more concrete and scientific manners and seemed to always have had explanations for everything around him. Prior Analytics is part of Aristotle's formal study of arguments . It is part of the texts on logic which are collectively known as the Organon ("Instrument"). Aristotle’s most famous contribution to logic is the syllogism, A syllogism is a three-step argument containing three different terms. In logic an argument is a series of true or false statements which lead to a true or false conclusion.< Less
On Prophesying by Dreams By Aristotle & J. I. Beare
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Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC), is one of most important philosophers of all time and remain a fountain of inspiration for modern thinkers. His works included logic, physics, politics, metaphysics,... More > rhetoric and zoology, biology, poetic tragedy and ethics that are still relevant today. He also preferred to define things in more concrete and scientific manners and seemed to always have had explanations for everything around him. Aristotle’s short text On Prophesying by Dreams, is his early exploration in the phenomena. He attempts to explain what causes a person to dream and why dreams are not sent by the Gods. He also believed that it is quite natural that commonplace persons should be those who have foresight in dreams, and that prophetic dreams are the result of coincidence< Less
On Sophistical Refutations By Aristotle & W. A. Pickard-Cambridge
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“For reasoning rests on certain statements such that they involve necessarily the assertion of something other than what has been stated, through what has been stated: refutation is reasoning... More > involving the contradictory of the given conclusion.” ... Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC), is one of most important philosophers of all time and remain a fountain of inspiration for modern thinkers. His works included logic, physics, politics, metaphysics, rhetoric and zoology, biology, poetic tragedy and ethics that are still relevant today. He also preferred to define things in more concrete and scientific manners and seemed to always have had explanations for everything around him. Sophistical Refutations identifies thirteen fallacies or false reasoning often due to a misconception or a presumption. From these fallacies, he also shows how to construct arguments for a position one has already decided to adopt and how to detect weaknesses in the arguments of others.< Less
On Generation and Corruption By Aristotle & H. H. Joachim
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Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC) is one of most important philosophers of all time and remain a fountain of inspiration for modern thinkers.. His work included logic, physics, politics, metaphysics,... More > rhetoric and zoology. He created scientific biology, defined the study of poetic tragedy, and produced work on ethics that is still relevant today. Unlike his teacher Plato, he preferred to define things in more concrete and scientific manners. He seemed to always have had explanations for every intricate details of the world around him. That is, he tried to reason things based on direct observations and cataloging of phenomenon. On Generation and Corruption is a treatise by Aristotle. The question whether things come into being through causes, through some prime material, or whether everything is generated purely through alteration are explored and answered. His work on this treatise also brought two of his recognized teachings namely the Four Causes and also the Four Elements.< Less

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