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The Apology of Socrates By Xenophon
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The Apology is a Socratic dialogue by Xenophon, a student of Socrates. It recounts Socrates' self-defense at his trial and execution, focusing prominently on his view that it was better to die before... More > senility set in than to escape execution by humbling himself before an unjust persecution. It is the only surviving primary account of the trial other than Plato's Apology. Xenophon presents his account as being the only one of them that made Socrates' "boastful manner of speaking" (megalegoria) at the trial understandable. The main part of the text is a direct blow for blow rejection of a particular attack on Socrates' character by an opponent of Socrates. The text gives clear indication on the charges brought against Socrates by Anytus, and is often used on this point in comparison with Plato's version of the trial.< Less
Cyropaedia: The Education of Cyrus By Xenophon
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The Cyropaedia is a biography of Cyrus the Great, written in the early 4th century BC by the Athenian gentleman-soldier, and student of Socrates, Xenophon of Athens. The Latinized title Cyropaedia... More > derives from Greek Kurou paideia, meaning "The Education of Cyrus". Aspects of it would become a model for medieval writers of the genre known as mirrors for princes. In turn it was a strong influence upon the most well-known but atypical of these, Machiavelli's The Prince, which was an important influence in the rejection of medieval political thinking, and the development of modern politics. However, unlike most "mirrors of princes", and like The Prince, whether or not the Cyropaedia was really intended to describe an ideal ruler is a subject of debate.< Less
Symposium, or the Banquet By Xenophon
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The Symposium is a Socratic dialogue by Xenophon. It dramatizes a discussion of Socrates and company at a dinner given by Callias for Autolycus, son of Lycon. While Plato's Symposium consists of a... More > series of lengthy speeches in praise of love, Xenophon's is dominated by witty repartee. A contest of words emerges between Socrates and Callias, and each of the symposiasts is asked to describe the thing which he prides himself on most. All their answers are playful or paradoxical: Socrates, for one, prides himself on his knowledge of the art of pimping. The story comes to a climax when Socrates praises the love Callias had for Autolycus.< Less
Oeconomicus (the Economist): A Treatise On the Science of the Household In the Form of a Dialogue By Xenophon
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The Oeconomicus by Xenophon is a Socratic dialogue principally about household management and agriculture. It is one of the earliest works on economics in its original sense of household management,... More > and a significant source for the social and intellectual history of classic Athens. Beyond the emphasis on household economics, the dialogue treats such topics as the qualities and relationships of men and women, rural vs. urban life, slavery, religion, and education. Joseph Epstein states that the Oeconomicus can actually be seen as a treatise on success in leading both an army and a state.< Less
Memorabilia, or Recollections of Socrates By Xenophon
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Xenophon devotes the rest of the Memorabilia to demonstrating how Socrates benefited his friends and a wide range of other Athenians. It thus consists of episodes, mainly rather short and none more... More > than a few pages in length, in which Socrates engages with a variety of persons. A few of the interlocutors appear several times. Typically Xenophon introduces the reason why he is writing about a particular conversation, and he will also occasionally interject a remark into the narrative, or at its conclusion. The lengthiest and most famous of Xenophon's Socratic writings, the Memorabilia is essentially an apologia (defense) of Socrates, differing from both Xenophon's Apology of Socrates to the Jury and Plato's Apology mainly in that the Apologies present Socrates as defending himself before the jury, whereas the former presents Xenophon's own defense of Socrates, offering edifying examples of Socrates' conversations and activities along with occasional commentary from Xenophon.< Less
Hiero, or “the Tyrant”: A Discourse On Despotic Rule By Xenophon
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Hiero is a minor work by Xenophon, set as a dialogue between Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse, and the lyric poet Simonides about 474 BCE. In it Xenophon argues that a tyrant does not have any more access... More > to happiness than a private person. It was the nominal subject of Leo Strauss' analysis On Tyranny, which initiated his famous dialogue with Alexandre Kojève on the role of philosophy in politics.< Less
Socratic Works and Dialogues of Xenophon By Xenophon
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Socratic Works and Dialogues of Xenophon has the following works: Hiero, or “the Tyrant”: A Discourse on Despotic Rule Memorabilia, or Recollections of Socrates Oeconomicus (The... More > Economist): A Treatise On the Science of the Household In the Form of a Dialogue Symposium, or the Banquet The Apology of Socrates< Less
Ways and Means: A Pamphlet On Revenues By Xenophon
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Ways and Means was written in 354 BC and is believed to be the last work written by Xenophon. A half century after Athens' defeat in the Peloponnesian War, the city was facing financial ruin. Ways... More > and Means consists of 5 chapters. In chapter 1 Xenophon lists the qualities of Athens that make it qualified for large revenue. The qualities that Xenophon lists are that the seasons in Attica are mild, the land and the sea near it are productive, and Athens is not near the land of the barbarians.< Less
The Polity of the Athenians and the Lacedaemonians By Xenophon
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Included in the shorter works of Xenophon is a hostile treatise about the Athenian Constitution. The author, who appears to be an Athenian, regards the Athenian democracy as undesirable, as giving... More > the mob undue voice in the state; but he argues that it is well-designed for its purpose, if you wanted so vile a thing to be done. The author goes on to say that whilst 'the good', a description he uses to cover the rich and the aristocracy of Athens, are better qualified to run the state due to their wealth and education, this would lead to 'the masses' being disenfranchised as the rich would naturally act in their own interests, leading to the suppression of the lower classes. The Athenian democracy allows the poor to exert their influence, in line with the thetes' crucial role in the Athenian Navy and therefore in Athens' affairs.< Less
The Cavalry General (Hipparchicus) By Xenophon
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Written in about 350 BC, the treatises of Xenophon were considered the earliest extant works on horsemanship in any literature until the publication by Bedrich Hrozný in 1931 of a Hittite... More > text, that by Kikkuli of the Mitanni Kingdom, which dates from about 1360 BC. A treatise on horsemanship by Pliny the Elder is believed lost, as was that by Simon of Athens, which is twice mentioned by Xenophon in On horsemanship Hipparchicus deals mainly with the duties of the cavalry commander (hipparchus), while On horsemanship deals with the selection, care and training of horses in general.< Less

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