Fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that turns chemical energy from a fuel into electric energy. Electricity is produced from the reaction between a fuel supply and an oxidizing agent. The reactants... More > flow into a cell, and the reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte stays inside it. Fuel cells can function constantly as long as the required reactant and oxidant flows are maintained. Fuel cells are varied from traditional electrochemical cell batteries in that they consume reactant from an external source which must be replenished as thermodynamically open system.< Less
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed into one of the most versatile techniques in clinical imaging and biomedical research by providing non-invasively high resolution, three-dimensional... More > anatomical and contrast-enhanced images of living tissue. The two most common groups of contrast-enhancing agents are gadolinium-based complexes and magnetic nanoparticles.< Less
Business elements include structural and infrastructural elements. Structural elements are tangible resources, such as buildings, equipment, and computer systems. These resources typically require... More > large capital investments that are difficult to reverse. Because of their cost and inflexibility, such elements arc changed infrequently and only after much deliberation. In contrast, infrastructural elements are the people, policies, decision rules, and organizational structure choices made by the firm. These elements are, by definition, not as visible as structural elements, but are just as important. Total quality management (TQM) is a managerial approach in which the entire organization is managed so that it excels in all quality dimensions that are important to customers. Organizations that adopt TQM as one of their infrastructural elements will probably make structural and infrastructural decisions that are very different from those of firms that don’t follow such an approach.< Less
Core competencies are organizational strengths or abilities, developed over a long period of time, that customers find valuable and competitors find difficult or even impossible to copy. Honda, for... More > example, is recog¬nized for having core competencies in the engineering and manufacture of small gas- powered engines. Those core competencies have helped Honda conquer numerous mar¬kets, including the markets for motorcycles, cars, lawnmowers, jet skis, and home generators.< Less
Business Processes is defined as “a set of logically related tasks or activities performed to achieve a defined business outcome.” For our purposes, these outcomes can be physical,... More > informational, or even monetary in nature. Physical outcomes might include the manufacture and delivery of goods to a customer; an informational outcome might be registering for college courses; and, finally, a monetary outcome might include payment to a supply chain partner for services rendered. Of course, many business processes have elements of all three.< Less
"An activity of 1000 Bq of a class-W aerosol (AMAD = 1 micrometer) is inhaled in a single intake
a) According to the ICRP-30 model for the respiratory system what is the initial activity... More > deposited in compartment e.
b) If the radionuclide has a physical half-life of 32 days, what fraction of the original activity in the compartment “e”, will still be there after 1 week.
"Hybrid financial instruments are securities issued by a company that combine features of both equity and debt. Typically, they offer investors
• a fixed income for several years,... More > and
• The opportunity to acquire equity stocks in the company, on or after a specified future date.
"• A company must meet its debt payment obligations otherwise its loan creditors could expose it to action. When debt obligations are high, profits must be sufficient to cover them.
•... More > Profits available to stockholders, after paying debt interest, can fluctuate sharply from one year to the next. The risk for stockholders therefore can be very high. A change in profits (before interest) of a given percentage amount will result in a bigger percentage change in profits (after interest and tax) for stockholders. This percentage change will be larger for more highly geared companies.