Modigliani had painted female nudes from the time of his arrival in Paris. His first works were notably expressive and conformed to the Symbolist idea of the female body as a source of sin. Later,... More > his nudes lost this moralizing content and embraced a Mediterranean sensuality.
In 1917 and with the consolidation of his mature style, Modigliani began his popular series of reclining nudes on the request of his friend and new dealer, Léopold Zborowski, who aimed to sell them to collectors interested in the newest type of avant-garde art.
However, the thirty or so works painted in Zborowski's apartment between 1917 and 1919 did not meet with the anticipated interest. In these works Modigliani looked to the example of earlier nudes, from Giorgione's Venus to Goya's Naked Maja, flattening the female form in a way first used by Ingres and ultimately adopted by Picasso.< Less
This Art Book contains annotated reproductions of Van Gogh's paintings, drawings and watercolors.
The book includes Table of Contents, Chronology of Van Gogh's life and some of his famous... More > Quotations.
It is useful and entertaining reading for both people who like and know the artistic heritage of Van Gogh, as well as for absolute beginners in this field.
The Impressionists and Post-impressionists of his time influenced Van Gogh to a great extent once he moved to Paris. The bright innovative palette dominated deeply over Gogh's earlier gloomy color palette. Van Gogh's utilization of this original impressionist and post impressionist style changed fundamentally not only his art work, but as well all of art history.< Less
In the primary identified description of Bosch's artworks, in 1560 Felipe de Guevara wrote that Bosch was regarded simply as "the originator of monsters and chimeras".
In the beginning... More > 17-th century, the Dutch Karel van Mander explained Bosch's art as "marvelous and extraordinary fantasies"; nevertheless, he finished that the paintings are "frequently less enjoyable than frightening to look at."
In the 20-th century, researchers have come to sight Bosch's vision as fewer unbelievable, and acknowledged that his art reflects the conventional religious faith systems of his time. His images of sinning people, his view of Heaven and Hell are now perceived as consistent with those of late medieval didactic literature and habits.
Nerveless, some critics notice Bosch as example of medieval surrealist, and parallels are repeatedly made with the modern Spanish artist Salvador Dali. Other scholars try to interpret his images using the words of Freudian psychology.< Less
Boldini's works demonstrated his topic object in soft-focus, stretched out, in movement, living, and stylish. He was even named the King of Swish, and if you look at his portraits of women, you can... More > notice why. His portraits were pleasing.
The brush work on his masterpieces was quick and bold. It is the almost genius brushwork that gives his paintings the sense of movement.< Less
Peter Paul Rubens was the most resourceful and significant Baroque artist in northern Europe in the 17th century. Highly gifted and internationally oriented, the Flemish artist received commissions... More > from almost all of Europe's major courts. His art blends the High Renaissance of Italy, with which he was familiar from an eight-year stay on the Italian peninsula, with northern realism. Having a phenomenal knowledge of classical antiquity, he was the prototype of the intellectual artist.
International diplomat, savvy businessman, devout Catholic, fluent in six languages, an intellectual, Rubens was always first a painter. Few artists have been capable of transforming such a vast variety of influences into a style utterly new and original. Frans Snyders, Jacob Jordaens, and Anthony van Dyck each assisted him. Rubens's impact was immediate, international, and long lasting. The works of Thomas Gainsborough and Eugene Delacroix, among others, testify to his posthumous influence.< Less
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec is best notorious as a storyteller of the night life of late 19th century Paris. He used to frequent the nightclubs and cafés of Montmartre, befriending the dancers... More > and prostitutes, making countless sketches as they comb their hair or just lie in bed. Toulouse-Lautrec did not picture the world of the dancers and prostitutes from outside: he just lived in that world. From time to time he rented a room in a brothel, where he made drawings of the prostitutes and their clientèle. With only a few strokes Toulouse-Lautrec gives a mood and a character. The men in his paintings, drawings and posters are often caricatures of power with large protruding chins and noses and big fat faces. By contrast his women are drawn with much warmth and understanding.< Less
This Art Book contains 134 annotated reproductions of Edgar Degas paintings and drawings with date and interesting facts page below.
Edgar Degas appears never to have settled himself to the brand of... More > "Impressionist," preferring to call himself a "Realist" or "Independent." Nevertheless, he was one of the group’s founders, an organizer of its exhibitions, and one of its most important core members. Like the Impressionists, he sought to capture fleeting moments in the flow of modern life, yet he showed little interest in painting plain air landscapes, favouring scenes in theatres and cafes illuminated by artificial light, which he used to clarify the contours of his figures, adhering to his Academic training. Unusual vantage points and asymmetrical framing are a consistent theme throughout Degas's works.< Less
John Singer Sargent was an American painter, considered the leading portrait artist of his generation for his depicting of Edwardian era luxury. During his livelihood, he created approximately 900... More > oil paintings, over 2,000 watercolors and incalculable sketches. His works documents international journey, from Europe to the Middle East and United States.
His made to order works were regular with the grand manner of portraiture, while his unofficial studies and landscape paintings displayed a fluency with Impressionism. In his later years Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plain air.< Less
John Constable rejected the formal or "picturesque" rendering of nature; instead, he tried to capture informally the effects of changing light and the patterns of clouds moving across the... More > country sky. He loved the countryside, and his best work was of outdoor scenes in his native Suffolk and his London home in Hampstead.
He worked in the open air, though he returned to his studio to finish his paintings. Often completing primary sketches prior to starting a large canvas,
In England Constable had no real successor and the many imitators turned rather to the formal compositions than to the more direct sketches. In France, however, he was a major influence on Romantic painters such as Delacroix, on the members of the Barbizon School, and ultimately on the Impressionists.< Less
William Adolphe Bouguereau was a follower of classical art and had no wish for everything like novelty or the avant-garde. His sense of idealism was his guiding principle, regarding the ugly as... More > worthless for representation. He populated his lush fantasy world with an idealized array of mythological figures, angels, women and children. A consummate craftsman and master of human anatomy, he utilized a delicate palette and glorious light to sensitively capture nuances of personality and mood, vibrantly bringing the soul and spirit of his subjects to life.
Bouguereau remained a hard supporter of the academic training system at a time when it was criticized for stifling originality and nurturing mediocrity. This hostility was further heightened by the perceived association of academic painting with the bourgeois values that had resulted in world war. However, recent more objective assessments have reinstated Bouguereau as an important 19th-century painter.< Less