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Cyber Infrastructure Protection: Volume II (Enlarged Edition) By U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute
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Increased reliance on the Internet and other networked systems raise the risks of cyber attacks that could harm our nation’s cyber infrastructure. The cyber infrastructure encompasses a number... More > of sectors including the nation’s mass transit and other transportation systems, banking and financial systems, factories, energy systems and the electric power grid, and telecommunications, which increasingly rely on a complex array of computer networks, including the public Internet. However, many of these systems and networks were not built and designed with security in mind. Therefore, our cyber infrastructure contains many holes, risks, and vulnerabilities that may enable an attacker to cause damage or disrupt cyber infrastructure operations. Threats to cyber infrastructure safety and security come from hackers, terrorists, criminal groups, and sophisticated organized crime groups; even nation-states and foreign intelligence services conduct cyber warfare.< Less
A “Hollow Army” Reappraised: President Carter, Defense Budgets, and the Politics of Military Readiness (Enlarged Edition) By Frank L. Jones, U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute
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The term “hollow army” became a part of the American political vocabulary more than 30 years ago, in another election year, 1980. Highlighted by reporter in an article about the U.S.... More > Army Chief of Staff’s congressional testimony concerning the fiscal year 1981 defense budget, the term became a metaphor for the Jimmy Carter administration’s alleged neglect of U.S. national security by political opponents as well as disapproving members of his own party in Congress, who believed him to be a liability. In the decades following, the expression broadened to a “hollow force” and its meaning expanded, serving as a way of describing the state of ill-prepared military forces in characterizing a presidential administration’s shortfall in the resources needed to meet U.S. military commitments.< Less
Finding “The Right Way”: Toward an Army Institutional Ethic (Carlisle Paper) By Lieutenant Colonel Clark C. Barrett, U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute
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The ethical lapses exemplified by Abu Ghraib, Mahmudiyah (Blackhearts), and Maywand (5/2 Stryker) are distressing symptoms of an even bigger, and potentially devastating, cultural shortcoming. The... More > U.S. Army profession lacks an institution l ethical framework and a means of peer-to-peer self-governance. The frameworks the Army has may imply , but they do not explicitly dictate, an Army ethic. Other English-speaking g nations’ ethical constructs can inform the development of an Army Ethic which serves to protect our organizational and individual honor from moral and ethical lapses which do great harm to the institution, undermine the American public trust, and hinder mission accomplishment. This Paper describes the problem, provides a review of literature, including current Army artifacts, reviews partner nation military ethics, and sketches the necessary philosophical underpinnings. The Paper also addresses the importance of promulgation, non-toleration, and the necessity for the Army to act as a learning...< Less
Disjointed Ways, Disunified Means: Learning from America’s Struggle to Build an Afghan Nation (Enlarged Edition) By Lewis G. Irwin, U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute
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Remarkably ambitious in its audacity and scope, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s (NATO) irregular warfare and “nation-building” mission in Afghanistan has struggled to meet... More > its nonmilitary objectives by most tangible measures. Put directly, the alliance and its partners have fallen short of achieving the results needed to create a stable, secure, democratic, and self-sustaining Afghan nation, a particularly daunting proposition given Afghanistan’s history and culture, the region’s contemporary circumstances, and the fact that no such country has existed there before. Furthermore, given the central nature of U.S. contributions to this NATO mission, these shortfalls also serve as an indicator of a serious American problem as well. Specifically, inconsistencies and a lack of coherence in U.S. Government strategic planning processes and products, as well as fundamental flaws in...< Less
Drug Trafficking, Violence, and Instability (Enlarged Edition) By Phil Williams et al.
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Key Insights from the conference included: (1) The relationships between powerful criminal groups and states are complex and create transnational issues of corruption and the production,... More > transportation, marketing, and consumption of illegal products and services that have national security implications for most states in the Western Hemisphere. (2) The Colombian government has successfully responded to challenges from the FARC and several criminal groups, but the challengers have responded with adaptations that ensure their survival. The persistence of these security challenges continue to cause concern over the intersection of drugs and terror. (3) Mexico has experienced an increase in organized criminal violence in several of its states; much of the violence is associated with drug trafficking and associated illegal activity. Counterintuitively, some areas sustain high levels of illegal activity without high levels of...< Less
Enabling Unity of Effort in Homeland Response Operations (Enlarged Edition) By H Steven Blum et al.
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Any significant homeland response event requires Americans to work together. This is a complex challenge. The authors assert that the principal obstacle to effective homeland response is a recurring... More > failure to achieve unity of effort across a diverse and often chaotic mix of participating federal, state, and local government and nongovernmental organizations. Despite a decade of planning since the terror attacks of September 2001, unity of effort still eludes us—particularly in the largest and most dangerous of crises. The authors examine how the military’s joint doctrine system affected joint military operational capabilities, concluding that a similar national homeland response doctrinal system is needed to create and sustain unity of effort. Doctrine performs a vital unifying function in complex operations, standardizing ways and means.< Less
India’s Changing Afghanistan Policy: Regional and Global Implications (Enlarged Edition) By Harsh V. Pant, U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute
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Since 2001, Afghanistan has allowed New Delhi an opportunity to underscore its role as a regional power. India has growing stakes in peace and stability in Afghanistan, and the 2011 India-Afghan... More > strategic partnership agreement underlines India’s commitment to ensure that a positive momentum in Delhi-Kabul ties is maintained. The changing trajectory of Indian policy towards Afghanistan since 2001 is examined, and it is argued that New Delhi has been responding to a strategic environment shaped by other actors in the region. U.S.-led North Atlantic Treaty Organization forces are preparing to leave Afghanistan in 2014, and India stands at a crossroads as it remains keen to preserve its interests in Afghanistan. The ever-evolving Indian policy in Afghanistan is examined in three phases before implications of this change for the region and the United States are drawn. There has been a broader maturing of the U.S.-India defense ties, and Afghanistan is likely to be a beneficiary of this trend.< Less
Jihadist Cells and “IED” Capabilities in Europe: Assessing The Present and Future Threat to The West (Enlarged Edition) By Jeffrey M. Bale, U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute
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During the past 2 decades, two interrelated security threats have emerged that Western democracies will likely be forced to contend with for the foreseeable future. The first of these threats is... More > multifaceted inasmuch as it stems from a complex combination of religious, political, historical, cultural, social, and economic motivational factors: the growing predilection for carrying out mass casualty terrorist attacks inside the territories of “infidel” Western countries by clandestine operational cells that are inspired ideologically by, and sometimes linked organizationally to, various jihadist networks with a global agenda. The most important of these latter networks is still the late Osama bin Laden’s high-profile group Qa‘idat al-Jihad (The Base [or Foundation] of the Jihad), together with its many organizational offshoots and regional affiliates.< Less
Insanity: Four Decades of U.S. Counterdrug Strategy (Carlisle Paper) (Enlarged Edition) By Lieutenant Colonel Michael F. Walther, U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute
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In the 4 decades since President Richard Nixon first declared war on drugs, the U.S. counterdrug strategy has remained virtually unchanged—favoring supply-reduction, law enforcement, and... More > criminal sanctions over demand reduction, treatment, a d education. While the annual counterdrug budget has ballooned from $100 million to $25 billion, the availability of most illicit drugs remains at an all-time high. The human cost is staggering nearly 40,000 drug-related deaths in the United States annually. The societal impact, in purely economic terms, is now estimated to be approximately $200 billion per year. The global illicit drug industry now accounts for 1 percent of all commerce on the planet approximately $320 billion annually. Legalization is almost certainly not the answer; however, an objective analysis of available data confirms that: 1) the United States has pursued essentially the same lawed supply-reduction strategy for 40 years; and...< Less
Culture, Identity, and Information Technology in the 21st Century: Implications for U.S. National Security (Enlarged Edition) By Pauline Kusiak, U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute
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This monograph describes strategic trends in cultural change and identity formation in the 21st century. While it is impossible to predict credibly the values and beliefs of future generations, the... More > first part of the monograph provides a modest forecast by tracing global trends in the use of language and media, as well as in the use of information and communication technologies. The second part then draws out potential implications of these culture and identity trends for the strength of the U.S. “signal” in the global info communication sphere. The analysis by Dr. Pauline Kusiak suggests that in the next several decades, the world is likely to be more ideologically fragmented than at any time during the 20th century and that the ability of the United States to push back against other “centers of influence” may be comparatively reduced.< Less