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Thinking about Nuclear Power in Post-Saddam Iraq (Enlarged Edition) By Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Norman Cigar
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Iraqis are debating the desirability of atomic power for their country. One can expect increasing Iraqi calls for a revival of the country’s nuclear capability, at least in the civilian sector,... More > which reflects a general consensus within key sectors of Iraqi public opinion as well as a growing regional trend. The Iraqi government will continue to reestablish its legitimacy by its support of a nuclear program as a litmus test for modernity and success, and has asked France to rebuild its former reactor, although significant practical obstacles will hamper rapid development in the nuclear field. Despite a continuing widespread perception of the utility of nuclear weapons, at least in some sectors of Iraqi opinion, a near-term resumption of a military nuclear program is not likely, although volatile conditions in the region and within Iraq itself could change that option at some time in the future. U.S. and international policymakers will have to consider Iraqi views as they shape...< Less
The State-Owned Enterprise as a Vehicle for Stability (Enlarged Edition) By Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Neil Efird
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State-owned enterprises (SOEs) affect stability in conflict-prone environments, and decisive control of them creates positive or negative conditions. The importance of SOEs and their treatment in... More > five post-conflict environments areas are described. In areas of the world in which security forces stepped in and took control, their actions helped stabilize the government. In contrast, when security forces failed to act decisively, the fragile government remained or was further destabilized. As often happens in complex environments, it is a challenge to know how and when to use SOEs, and a good set of metrics is necessary to measure their effectiveness. The author proposes that associated with the analytical tool known as “Measuring Progress in Conflict Environments” are objectives that directly relate to production, or the output of economic resources. Other objectives relate to policy frameworks that directly affect production.< Less
The Russian Military Today and Tomorrow: Essays in Memory of Mary Fitzgerald (Enlarged Edition) By Stephen J. Blank et al.
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Given the stakes involved in achieving a correct understanding of Russian and Chinese defense policies and military developments, the magnitude of Mary Fitzgerald’s enlightening accomplishments... More > in this regard becomes clear. But the problems we have outlined in this volume were not unfamiliar to students of the Soviet Union. Indeed, they are enduring strategic issues for Russian policymakers as well as those who analyze or contribute to foreign policies towards the Russian military, despite the magnitude of the tremendous changes that have occurred since 1989 when the Soviet empire began to collapse. Even more important, Mary and her colleagues recognized that the issues outlined here are not just tasks relevant for the study of Russia. Addressing these strategic issues, and their underlying stakes, are essential tasks for creating an enduring structure of peace.< Less
The Effects of Multiple Deployments on Army Adolescents (Enlarged Edition) By Strategic Studies Institute et al.
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Multiple deployments have become a way of life for our Soldiers. In Army families, these frequent deployments increase the burden on children who must face the stress and strain of separation and... More > anxiety. The authors take a much-needed, detailed look at the effects of multiple deployments on Army adolescents. The results of this study reinforce some of what we already know concerning deployments and children, but they also reveal some very interesting, counterintuitive findings that challenge the conventional wisdom concerning Army adolescents. This study goes beyond merely explaining the impact 8 years of war is having on the children of our Soldiers; rather, it explores the specific factors that increase or alleviate stress on Army adolescents. The results reveal that Army adolescents, contrary to what many believed, are much more self-aware and resilient. Furthermore, they are capable of understanding the multiple implications of having a parent serve in the all-volunteer Army during a time of war.< Less
The Construction of Liberal Democracy: The Role of Civil-Military Institutions in State and Nation-Building in West Germany and South Africa (Enlarged Edition) By Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Jack J. Porter
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West Germany’s and South Africa’s experiences remind U.S. policymakers of the tremendous obstacles and challenges that confront states as they attempt to install liberal, democratic... More > political institutions. These experiences llustrate the intricate complexities and numerous considerations that factor into this process and provide some important lessons for the future. The multifaceted transition process involves a host of overlapping and interrelated political, economic, and social innovations that often must be tailored to the specific historical, demographic, and regional needs of each community. Most scholars and policymakers agree that restructuring the security and civil-military institutions is vital to the transition. The author begins the monograph by outlining the central theoretical and practical challenges associated with designing democratic armed forces and civilmilitary institutions. In essence, the overriding goal for these communities is two-fold: the creation of military...< Less
Some of the Best Weapons for Counterinsurgents Do Not Shoot (Enlarged Edition) By Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Eric T. Olson
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Even under the best circumstances, reconstruction in counterinsurgency is a difficult endeavor. The most critical tasks are numerous and complex. Many participating agencies must undertake missions... More > that fall well out of their existing core competencies or operate in environments that are completely unfamiliar to them. The involvement of multiple agencies who are not accustomed to working together makes coordination difficult. And all this must take place in an environment where an armed, violent foe, who understands the disadvantage to him of a successful reconstruction effort, is determined to go to almost any length to resist progress or destroy what has been accomplished. If the counterinsurgent understands what needs to be accomplished and to what end, and he has a plan and can mount a coordinated effort to execute that plan. Reconstruction can indeed then become one of the array of key weapons that do not shoot that are available to the counterinsurgent. Even as a weapon that does not shoot...< Less
U.S. Military Forces and Police Assistance in Stability Operations: The Least-Worst Option to Fill the U.S. Capacity Gap (Enlarged Edition) By Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Dennis E. Keller
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Establishing an effective local police force is one of the most critical elements of successful counterinsurgency and stability operations, but is a task for which the U.S. government is poorly... More > prepared and lacks capacity. This monograph retraces the recent history of U.S. foreign police training, from the well-coordinated effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) from 1961 to 1974, the U.S. congressional prohibition of the use of foreign assistance funds for police training which ended the USAID police training role in 1974, and the subsequent evolution of a patchwork approach to U.S. foreign police training involving up to 30 departments and agencies, a variety of private police contractors, and multiple fund appropriations. Despite this bureaucratic complexity, the key principles for developing effective local police in stability operations remain the same.< Less
Security and Stability in Africa: A Development Approach (Enlarged Edition) By Clarence J. Bouchat, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College
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The security and stability of Africa has recently become an important national issue readily seen in the increased time, effort, and resources now devoted to the continent by such new organizations... More > as the U.S. Africa Command (USAFRICOM). This paper seeks to overcome centuries of ignorance and misunderstanding about the conditions and people of Africa by discussing the fundamental issues of economic development and political governance through which enduring stability and security might be obtained. This paper offers solutions in terms of improving African stability and security and a framework of several key issues which should give policymakers the knowledge they need to work in a constantly changing and very challenging environment.< Less
Reviewing the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (Enlarged Edition) By Henry Sokolski, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College
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Most foreign ministries, including that of Iran and the United States, insist that Article IV of the NPT recognizes all states’ “inalienable right” to develop “peaceful... More > nuclear energy” including such money-losing activities as nuclear fuel reprocessing. This can bring countries to the very brink of acquiring nuclear weapons. If the NPT is intended to ensure that states share peaceful “benefits” of nuclear energy and prevent the spread of nuclear bomb making technologies, how it can accomplish either if the interpretation above is correct? Some argue that the NPT clearly proscribes proliferation by requiring international nuclear safeguards against military diversions of fissile material. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nuclear inspections, which are intended to detect illicit nuclear activities and materials, certainly have a mixed record. Not only have they failed to find existing covert reactors and fuel-making plants, the agency still cannot assure the continuity...< Less
Operation EUFOR TCHAD/REA and the European Union’s Common Security and Defense Policy (Enlarged Edition) By Strategic Studies Institute, Bjoern H. Seibert, U.S. Army War College
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Addressing security challenges posed by weak and failed states will require increasingly demanding military interventions, often over a great distance and prolonged periods of time. As a result of... More > several engagements over the last decade, the U.S. military has gained valuable experience in undertaking stability operations. However, the United States should not be expected to fulfill such operations alone; we must look to our partners and allies to share some of the global responsibility. In this, Europe is unquestionably the most capable and natural U.S. ally. While most U.S. policymakers are familiar with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, developments in the field of security and defense within the European Union (EU) have thus far received little attention in the United States, despite the EU’s increasing importance. One such operation in Africa, Operation EUFOR TCHAD/RCA, provides a look inside the workings of an EU military operation, highlights successes and failures, and draws lessons learned.< Less