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Moses and the Exodus Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence By Gerard Gertoux
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The existence Moses as well as the Exodus are disputed despite they form the basis of the Passover which meant the Promised Land for Jews and later the Paradise for Christians. For most Egyptologists... More > there is absolutely no evidence of Moses and the Exodus in Egyptian documents. However, the last king of the 15th dynasty named Apopi (1613-1573) met Seqenenre Taa, the last pharaoh of the 17th dynasty, who died in May 1533 BCE in dramatic and unclear circumstances (Ps 136:15) as well as his eldest son and crown prince: Ahmose Sapaïr, who died shortly before him (Ex 12:29). Prince Kamose, Seqenenre Taa's brother, assured interim of authority for 3 years and threatened attack Apopi, new prince of Retenu (Palestine) who had taken the name Moses, according to Manetho. In the stele of the Tempest, Kamose also blamed Apopi for all the disasters that come to fall upon Egypt, which caused many deaths.< Less
Abraham and Chedorlaomer: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence By Gerard Gertoux
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Historians consider the biblical account about Chedorlaomer's campaign against Sodom (1954 BCE) as a pious fiction. However, the Gospels refer to it as a real story (Heb 7:1) and a chronological... More > reconstruction based on synchronisms shows that, among dynasties from Sumerian lists, the 3rd and last Elamite king of the Awan I dynasty was Kudur-Lagamar (1990-1954). The Spartoli tablets (c. 650 BCE) describe this famous attack of Babylonia by a coalition of evil kings named Kudur-KUKUmal, king of Elam, Tudḫula, king of Gutium, and Eri-Aku [king of Larsa]. The route of Chedorlaomer and the description of his actions show that this king came to this region near Egypt in order to maintain control over this new land trade route. This ambitious project had to have worried Amenemhat I because southern Canaan was a big source of supply. In order to protect Egypt, Amenemhat I built the "Walls of the Ruler". One can notice that the area of Sodom was called Šutu[m] in execration texts (then Moab after 1800 BCE).< Less
Jonah vs King of Nineveh: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence By Gerard Gertoux
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Historians consider the Biblical account of Jonah's warning against Nineveh as pious fiction, but the Gospels refer to it as a real story (Lk 11:29-32). The book of Jonah, despite its brevity, gives... More > some verifiable information regarding Nineveh, a very old city, which disappeared completely after its destruction in 612 BCE. The dimensions mentioned seem colossal, however they do agree with the accounts of Herodotus, Diodorus and Strabo. Jonah’s mission coincided with Jeroboam II’s accession (2 Ki 14:23-25) and Shalmaneser III’s death in 824 BCE who had previously commissioned Shamshi-Adad V as new Crown prince to quell the revolt headed by his brother Assur-danin-pal, who had headed 27 cities including the renowned Nineveh. Jonah's mission was therefore a success since Assyrian expansionism to the Mediterranean coast would cease, at least for 80 years.< Less
Absolute Chronology of the Ancient World from 1533 BCE to 140 CE By Gerard Gertoux
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“Chronology is the backbone of history” is usually taught in schools but in the same time the first fall of Babylon is fixed today (2016) either in 1595 BCE or in 1651, 1531, 1499... More > depending on historians! In Egyptology the situation is still worse because each Egyptologist has his own chronology (gap of 20 years)! Such a difference in timeline prevents one from reaching the historical truth. It is for this reason that from Herodotus, the “father of history”, Greek historians established a system of scientific dating in order to write a universal history. Many astronomical phenomena, which are well identified such as eclipses, enable us today to synchronize these ancient dating systems and anchor them on absolute dates. As incredible as it may seem this is still not done. The purpose of the present brochure is to give the chronologies of the main ancient civilizations (Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Hittite, Israelite, etc.) with their synchronisms as well as all absolute dating based on astronomical events.< Less
Absolute Chronology of the Ancient World from 2840 BCE to 1533 BCE By Gerard Gertoux
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“Chronology is the backbone of history” is usually taught in schools but in the same time the first fall of Babylon is fixed today (2016) either in 1595 BCE or in 1651, 1531, 1499... More > depending on historians! In Egyptology the situation is still worse because each Egyptologist has his own chronology (gap of 20 years)! Such a difference in timeline prevents one from reaching the historical truth. It is for this reason that from Herodotus, the “father of history”, Greek historians established a system of scientific dating in order to write a universal history. Many astronomical phenomena, which are well identified such as eclipses, enable us today to synchronize these ancient dating systems and anchor them on absolute dates. As incredible as it may seem this is still not done. The purpose of the present brochure is to give the chronologies of the main ancient civilizations (Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Hittite, Israelite, etc.) with their synchronisms as well as all absolute dating based on astronomical events.< Less
The Book of Job: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence By Gerard Gertoux
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The book of Job is paradoxical regarding its historicity as well as its meaning. Although Job is clearly presented as a real, historical person (he lived from 1710 to 1500 near Bozra in Idumea),... More > rabbis and bishops preferred to see it as a moral tale. Despite the main question all over the book being: "why evil prevails?" the answer would be: "please, look at the hippopotamus and the crocodile" (Job 40:1-42:6), which is poetic but quite absurd. However, as Maimonides had already understood a long time ago the Book of Job includes profound ideas and great mysteries and reveals the most important truths. Indeed, Job received a deep and detailed answer in order to know when and how the evil angel, Leviathan a.k.a. Satan, would be defeated by Behemoth the first creature of God (Job 40:19). In a surprising manner, archaeology has shown that all the geographical and historical details in the Book of Job are accurate and reliable.< Less
Kings David and Solomon: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence By Gerard Gertoux
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The David and Solomon's kingdoms are no longer considered as historical by minimalist archaeologists. According to Finkelstein and Silberman, for example, authors of The Bible Unearthed:... More > Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, at the time of the kingdoms of David and Solomon, Jerusalem was populated by only a few hundred residents or less. Some Biblical minimalists like Thompson go further, arguing that Jerusalem became a city and capable of being a state capital only in the mid-seventh century. Likewise, Finkelstein and others consider the claimed size of Solomon's temple implausible. A review of methods and arguments used by these minimalists shows that they are impostors for writing history. The historical testimonies dated by a chronology anchored on absolute dates (backbone of history) are replaced by archaeological remains dated by carbon-14 (backbone of modern myths). The goal of these unfounded claims is clearly the charring of biblical accounts.< Less
Noah and the Deluge: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence By Gerard Gertoux
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Historians consider the biblical account of Noah and the Deluge as a myth. However, this famous event occurred at the earliest times of recorded history (Sumerian King List). Today scientists believe... More > in the last ice age called Pleistocene ending in 10,000 BCE, but there is no witness of this planetary cataclysmic event and its existence is based solely on the controversial interpretation of its consequences and their dating. The existence of erratic blocks and the disappearance of mammoths are presented as evidence of the last glaciation. However, despite dating obtained by 14C (calibrated by dendrochronology) is considered absolute by most experts its confrontation with the Egyptian chronology, in which some dates are fixed by astronomy, reverses this widespread belief and shows that dates obtained by 14C increase exponentially before -2200. Thus the rate of 14C tends gradually to 0 around -3500, which implies an important consequence: before -3500, 14C dating is no longer possible.< Less
Herod the Great and Jesus: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence By Gerard Gertoux
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The traditional date of 4 BCE for Herod’s death, as set forth by E. Schürer (1896), has been accepted by historians for years without notable controversy. However, according to the texts... More > of Luke and Matthew, Herod died shortly after Jesus’ birth, which can be fixed in 2 BCE. Consequently, there is apparently a major chronological contradiction, however Josephus gives a dozen synchronisms that enable us to date his death on 26 January 1 BCE just after a total lunar eclipse (9 January 1 BCE) prior to the Passover. Two important events confirm the dating of Herod's death: the ‘census of Quirinius’ in Syria which was a part of the ‘Inventory of the world’ ordered by Augustus when he became ‘Father of the Country’ in 2 BCE and the ‘war of Varus’ after Herod's death conducted under the auspices of Caius Caesar, the imperial legate of the East, and dated during the year of his consulship in 1 CE.< Less
Queen Esther wife of Xerxes: Chronological, Historical and Archaeological Evidence By Gerard Gertoux
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Very few Bible scholars believe now in the historicity of the book of Esther. There is no chronological investigation despite the fact that chronology is the backbone of history and there has been no... More > historical research among archaeological witnesses. Worse still, to establish their chronology, historians have blind faith in the Babylonian king lists which are nevertheless false (reporting no usurpation and no co-regency). Yet it is easy to check in the tablets of Persepolis that Mordecai was an eminent royal scribe called Marduka who worked with Tatennai, the governor beyond the River, under the direction of Uštanu, the satrap of Babylon, during the years 17 to 32 of Darius. Similarly, the narrative of Herodotus regarding Amestris (a name meaning ‘vigorous woman’ in Old Persian), Xerxes' unique wife and only queen known in Persia, corresponds in many ways to Esther (‘star’ in Old Persian”) despite the unfavourable and biased description of the Persian queen.< Less

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