As modern protective relays become increasingly more powerful and complex, many relay testers continue to use test procedures and philosophies that are based on previous generations of relays and... More > their limitations. Modern relays have very different characteristics that require a different testing philosophy to ensure that they will operate when required.
As the first of The Relay Testing Handbook series, Electrical Fundamentals for Relay Testing contains the underlying electrical theory that all relay testers should understand. This information provides a foundation that all other handbooks in the series use when describing the most common protective elements, how they function, and the most effective and efficient procedures used to test them. Even experienced relay testers can benefit from having this manual on hand as a quick reference when facing an unfamiliar relay testing situation.
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The Relay Testing Handbook: Creating and Implementing Test Plans outlines step-by-step procedures that will enable you to create and implement protective relay test plans for modern relay systems,... More > ensuring accurate and efficient relay testing for nearly every application.
Use the practical steps outlined in this volume to help you: Collect and compare drawings, settings, and engineering studies to evaluate the application; Compare all of the available documentation to the manufacturer’s literature; Prepare to test the relay by correctly isolating it from the rest of the system; Establish communication with the relay and apply the settings; Properly connect your test-set to the relay; Perform acceptance tests; Design your test plan using conventional test techniques, or implement more efficient and effective ones, Implement your test plan or apply common test plans for feeder, generator, or line protection, Prepare your report and test sheets Get more information at http://valenceonline.com.< Less
Modern relays have very different characteristics that require a different testing philosophy to ensure that they will operate when required. As the second of The Relay Testing Handbook series, Relay... More > Testing Fundamentals builds on the electrical theory principles introduced in the first package, Electrical Fundamentals for Relay Testing.
Relay testers of all skill levels can benefit from a solid foundation of relay testing fundamentals; the foundational elements included in this book include: Reasons for relay testing; Essential relay testing equipment; The importance of using different test techniques for various relay generations; Traditional test procedures for element testing; Logic and dynamic testing; Combining test techniques for more efficient and effective relay testing; Applying test techniques that take advantage of modern test equipment and software.
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The Relay Testing Handbook: Understanding Digital Logic explains the different forms of relay logic used in modern microprocessor based relays. Each type of relay logic is described in detail with... More > practical examples to demonstrate how relay manufacturers use common relay logic principles applied with different style interfaces such as: Individual element schemes (GE SR and Beckwith relays); Binary relays (Alstom and Siemens relays); Arithmetic (math) schemes (Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories relays); Logic schemes (General Electric UR relays).
Use the practical examples outlined in this volume to help you: Understand and use logic gates such as AND, OR, NOT, NOR, NAND, and more; Use logic comparators and timers; Convert relay settings from one logic format to another; Convert logic schemes into DC schematics to help understand and commission logic systems; Understand the protective relay logic used in nearly every in-service relay today
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This package provides an overview of End-to-End testing and answers the most common questions a relay tester should ask before performing their first End-to-End test. A basic introduction of this... More > test technique is followed by a step-by-step procedure for performing a successful end-to-end test. This package also includes an overview of the most common communication-assisted protection schemes to help the reader understand how these schemes operate. Go to http://valenceonline.com/book.php for more information. This paper will NOT be part of the final Relay Testing Handbook.< Less
The Relay Testing Handbook: Testing Differential Protection (87) provides step-by-step procedures for testing the most common differential protection applications.
This volume is designed to help... More > you: Understand the basic characteristics of differential protection; Develop effective and efficient testing procedures that minimize setting changes.
The following topics are described with realistic, practical examples and detailed instructions: Understanding simple differential protection for motors and generators; Defining minimum pickup and slope; Determining which settings are most important; Understanding transformer differential protection; Determining correct phase shifts through transformers; Recommended steps to correctly calculate and test differential protection using six channels; Recommended steps to correctly calculate and test differential protection using three channels; Testing harmonic restraint; Tips and tricks to overcome common obstacles. Go to http://valenceonline.com for more info.< Less
This hardback book includes most of the volumes in the The Relay Testing Handbook series and includes: Electrical fundamentals; Relay testing fundamentals; How to translate digital logic used by... More > relay manufacturers into familiar concepts; and Best practices for creating and implementing test plans.
Entire chapters are dedicated to the most commonly used protective elements including: Overvoltage, undervoltage, and frequency (59/27/81); Time, instantaneous, and directional overcurrent (51/50/67); Simple and transformer differential (87) testing with three or six current channels; and Line distance (21) testing using realistic test plans to minimize setting changes.
Each protective element chapter includes: A description of operation written for a relay tester, not for a design engineer; Step-by-step test techniques that maximize your effectiveness and efficiency; Realistic examples from various relay manufacturers and models.
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The Relay Testing Handbook: Testing Line Distance Protection (21) provides step-by-step procedures for testing the most common line distance (impedance) protection applications.
This volume is... More > designed to help you: Understand the basic characteristics of line distance protection (21); Develop effective and efficient testing procedures that minimize setting changes. The following topics are described with realistic, practical examples and detailed instructions: Analyzing impedance diagrams; Understanding zones and how they are applied; Determining which settings are most important; Preventing interference from other settings inside the relay; Performing MTA, reach, and timing tests
; Recommended steps to correctly calculate and test the three-phase characteristic; Recommended steps to correctly calculate and test the phase-phase characteristic; Understanding K-Factor; Recommended steps to correctly calculate and test the phase-ground characteristic. Go to http://valenceonline.com for more info.< Less