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494 results for "Aristotle"
Politics: A Treatise On Government By Aristotle
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Aristotle's Politics is a work of political philosophy. The end of the Nicomachean Ethics declared that the inquiry into ethics necessarily follows into politics, and the two works are frequently... More > considered to be parts of a larger treatise, or perhaps connected lectures, dealing with the "philosophy of human affairs." The title of the Politics literally means "the things concerning the polis."< Less
The Politcs By Aristotle
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Aristotle's Politics is a work of political philosophy. The end of the Nicomachean Ethics declared that the inquiry into ethics necessarily follows into politics, and the two works are frequently... More > considered to be parts of a larger treatise, or perhaps connected lectures, dealing with the "philosophy of human affairs." After studying a number of real and theoretical city-state's constitutions, Aristotle classified them according to various criteria. On one side stand the true (or good) constitutions, which are considered such because they aim for the common good, and on the other side the perverted (or deviant) ones, considered such because they aim for the well being of only a part of the city. The constitutions are then sorted according to the "number" of those who participate to the magistracies: one, a few, or many.< Less
The History of Animals By Aristotle
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Biology was a natural pursuit for Aristotle, given his family's medical background. In the zoological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the 19th century. On... More > his work in The History of Animals, Aristotle draws the most important distinctions between animals with and without blood. Animals that reproducing offspring within the female's body, as generally the case with mammals and reproducing through the hatching of eggs. He shed some insights into the questions of reproduction and heredity. He also believed that no organ was given to an animal without a purpose. Final characteristics were those essential to an animal species, while variable characteristics consisted of qualities that develop rather than being naturally endowed.< Less
The Athenian Constitution: Athenaion Politeia By Aristotle
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The Athenian constitution (The Constitution of the Athenians) is the name of either of two texts from Classical antiquity, one probably by Aristotle or a student of his, the other attributed to... More > Xenophon, but not by him. The Constitution of the Athenians (in ancient Greek Ἀθηναίων πολιτεία, Athenaion Politeia) describes the political system of ancient Athens. The treatise was made between 330 and 322 BC. Some ancient authors, as Diogenes Laërtius state that Aristotle assigned his pupils to prepare a monograph of 158 constitutions of Greek cities, including a constitution of Athens. The work consists of two parts. The first part, from Chapter I to Chapter XLI, deals with the different iterations of the constitution, from the trial of the Alcmaeonidae until 403 BC. The second part describes the city's institutions, including the terms of access to citizenship, magistrates and the courts.< Less
The Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle
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The Nicomachean Ethics is the name normally given to Aristotle's best known work on ethics. The work, which plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics, consists of ten books, originally... More > separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum, which were either edited by or dedicated to Aristotle's son, Nicomachus. The Nicomachean Ethics is widely considered one of the most important historical philosophical works, and had an important impact upon the European Middle Ages, becoming one of the core works of medieval philosophy. It therefore indirectly became critical in the development of all modern philosophy as well as European law and theology. Many parts of the Nicomachean Ethics are well known in their own right, within different fields.< Less
Ethics By Aristotle
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The Ethics of Aristotle is one half of a single treatise of which his Politics is the other half. Both deal with one and the same subject. This subject is what Aristotle calls in one place the... More > "philosophy of human affairs;" but more frequently Political or Social Science. In the two works taken together we have their author's whole theory of human conduct or practical activity, that is, of all human activity which is not directed merely to knowledge or truth. The two parts of this treatise are mutually complementary, but in a literary sense each is independent and self-contained. The proem to the Ethics is an introduction to the whole subject, not merely to the first part; the last chapter of the Ethics points forward to the Politics, and sketches for that part of the treatise the order of enquiry to be pursued (an order which in the actual treatise is not adhered to).< Less
Physics (Physica) By Aristotle
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The Physics of Aristotle is one of the foundational books of Western science and philosophy. It is a collection of treatises or lessons that deal with the most general (philosophical) principles of... More > natural or moving things, both living and non-living, rather than physical theories (in the modern sense) or investigations of the particular contents of the universe. The chief purpose of the work is to discover the principles and causes of (and not merely to describe) change, or movement, or motion (kinesis), especially that of natural wholes (mostly living things, but also inanimate wholes like the cosmos).< Less
Metaphysics By Aristotle
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Metaphysics is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name. The principal subject is "being qua being", or being... More > understood as being. It examines what can be asserted about anything that exists just because of its existence and not because of any special qualities it has. Also covered are different kinds of causation, form and matter, the existence of mathematical objects, and a prime-mover God.< Less
On Prophesying By Dreams By Aristotle
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The treatise, one of the Parva Naturalia, is an early inquiry (perhaps the first formal one) into this phenomenon. In his skeptical consideration of such dreams, Aristotle argues that, although... More > "the sender of such dreams should be God," it is nonetheless the case "that those to whom he sends them are not the best and wisest, but merely commonplace persons" (i, 462b20-22). Thus, "Most [so-called prophetic] dreams are, however, to be classed as mere coincidences" (i, 463a31-b1).< Less
On the Soul: De Anima By Aristotle
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On the Soul (De Anima) is a major treatise by Aristotle on the nature of living things. His discussion centres on the kinds of souls possessed by different kinds of living things, distinguished by... More > their different operations. Thus plants have the capacity for nourishment and reproduction, the minimum that must be possessed by any kind of living organism. Lower animals have, in addition, the powers of sense-perception and self-motion (action). Humans have all these as well as intellect.< Less