When we observe the world around us we make these observations always from the conscience of our own brain. So all human beings are bound to the nature and structure of their own brain. This book is... More > an attempt to step aside and will observe our universe from the outside. Mathematics can help our conscience to see the equality of gravitation and expansion. That’s why this theory is also mathematical founded. Perhaps these equations will inspire you to develop some parts in physics that are still undiscovered.
You can be the next Einstein. Visit cosmicexpansion.org< Less

Principles of mass-energy distribution and similitude by ZPF equilibria are utilised to derive the values of the present Hubble constant "H_0" and CMBR temperature "T_0". It is... More > demonstrated that a mathematical relationship exists between the Hubble constant and CMBR temperature such that "T_0" is derived from "H_0". The values derived are "67.0843(km/s/Mpc)" and "2.7248(K)" respectively. We also derive improved estimates for the solar distance from the Galactic centre "R_0" and total Galactic mass "M_G" as being "8.1072(kpc)" and "6.3142 x10^11(solar-masses)" respectively. The construct herein implies that the observed "accelerated expansion" of the Universe is attributable to the determination of the ZPF energy density threshold "U_ZPF" being "< -2.52 x10^-13(Pa)". Moreover, it is graphically illustrated that the gradient of the Hubble constant in the time domain is presently positive.< Less

This is a new and simple philosophy for physics and the measurement of matter and energy within a circlon shaped universe. Mass, space, time and gravity are combined into the single mechanical system... More > of Newton’s F=ma. This principle of measurement leads to a discovery of decreasing electron mass. By following the effects of this discovery back into our evolutionary past, a creation story of the universe is revealed that is illustrated by combining the Big Bang theory’s measurements with the electrodynamics of the circlon shaped electron, proton and photons. This creation model leads us first to the red shifted Hubble galaxies and then to the Dark Energy of supernovas. Eventually, we get to the time of the 2.7˚K Cosmic Blackbody Radiation and then to a Neutron Cloud era. Much earlier we reach the time when all of our electrons and protons were bifurcated from a single antineutron. This book is illustrated with many models, equations and charts that depict the evolution of the universe.< Less

The book examines misunderstandings on the part of Einstein and others that have persisted to the present day. Part I treats special relativity, proving the existence of the aether, in terms of which... More > seeming paradoxes are explained in a cause and effect manner. Part II deals with Einstein's theory of gravity. It is shown that gravitational rest mass reduction is inherent in the theory, being the very embodiment of gravitational potential energy, causing not only the gravitational red shift, but also an elongation of all objects, including measuring rods, indicating that the accepted geometry of a black hole is incorrect. Regarding cosmology, momentum conservation demands that rest masses are increasing in proportion to the function that is presently thought to describe the expansion of the universe. Thus the cosmological red shift is a consequence of the reduced rest masses of the era of emission, not the expansion of space itself.< Less

Newton and Einstein's Theories of Gravity are based on Potential Energy and left out the Vector Energy of Motion.
Gravitational Energy is Quaternion Energy and includes both Real (Potential) and... More > Vector Energy of motion. When this is included the Universe is in Equilibrium, Not Expanding.
The "Dark Energy" is seen to be the Vector Energy that balances the Centripetal Gravitational Energy.
The Redshift is the indicator of Equilibrium, not expansion. The Redshift is the cosine of the angle between the Normal vector and momentum vector.< Less