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16,744 results for "Health"
Complete Medical Guide for Disease Volume XX; Osteoarthritis By Medical Professionals, National Institute of Health
eBook (ePub): $2.99
Osteoarthritis (OA) also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease or osteoarthrosis, is a group of mechanical abnormalities involving degradation of joints, including articular... More > cartilage and subchondral bone. Symptoms may include joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, locking, and sometimes an effusion. A variety of causes—hereditary, developmental, metabolic, and mechanical—may initiate processes leading to loss of cartilage. When bone surfaces become less well protected by cartilage, bone may be exposed and damaged. As a result of decreased movement secondary to pain, regional muscles may atrophy, and ligaments may become more lax. Treatment generally involves a combination of exercise, lifestyle modification, and analgesics. If pain becomes debilitating, joint replacement surgery may be used to improve the quality of life. OA is the most common form of arthritis, and the leading cause of chronic disability in the United States.< Less
Complete Medical Guide for Disease Volume XI; Fibromyalgia By Medical Professionals, National Institute of Health
eBook (ePub): $2.99
Fibromyalgia (FM or FMS) is a medical disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and allodynia, a heightened and painful response to pressure. Fibromyalgia symptoms are not restricted to pain,... More > leading to the use of the alternative term fibromyalgia syndrome for the condition. Other symptoms include debilitating fatigue, sleep disturbance, and joint stiffness. Some patients may also report difficulty with swallowing, bowel and bladder abnormalities, numbness and tingling, and cognitive dysfunction. Fibromyalgia is frequently comorbid with psychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety and stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Not all people with fibromyalgia experience all associated symptoms. Fibromyalgia is estimated to affect 2–4% of the population, with a female to male incidence ratio of approximately 9:1.< Less
Complete Medical Guide for Disease Volume XVIII; Lupus By Medical Professionals, National Institute of Health
eBook (ePub): $1.99
If you have lupus, your immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues by mistake. This can damage your joints, skin, blood vessels and organs. There are many kinds of lupus. The most common type,... More > systemic lupus erythematosus, affects many parts of the body. Discoid lupus causes a rash that doesn't go away. Subacute cutaneous lupus causes sores after being out in the sun. Another type can be caused by medication. Neonatal lupus, which is rare, affects newborns. Anyone can get lupus, but women are most at risk. Lupus is also more common in African American, Hispanic, Asian and Native American women. The cause of lupus is not known. Lupus has many symptoms. Some common ones are Joint pain or swelling Muscle pain Fever with no known cause Red rashes, often on the face (also called the "butterfly rash") There is no one test to diagnose lupus, and it may take months or years to make the diagnosis. There is no cure for lupus, but medicines and lifestyle changes can help control it.< Less
Complete Medical Guide for Disease Volume V: Ankylosing Spondylitis By Medical Professionals, National Institute of Health
eBook (ePub): $1.99
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS, from Greek ankylos, stiff; spondylos, vertebrae), previously known as Bekhterev's disease, Bekhterev syndrome, and Marie-Strümpell disease, is a chronic inflammatory... More > disease of the axial skeleton with variable involvement of peripheral joints and nonarticular structures. AS is a form of spondyloarthritis, a chronic, inflammatory arthritis and autoimmune disease.[1] It mainly affects joints in the spine and the sacroiliac joint in the pelvis, and can cause eventual fusion of the spine. It is a member of the group of the spondyloarthropathies with a strong genetic predisposition. Complete fusion results in a complete rigidity of the spine, a condition known as "bamboo spine". As of 2012, no cure is known for AS, although treatments and medications are available to reduce symptoms and pain.< Less
Complete Medical Guide for Disease Volume XVI; Juvenile Arthritis By Medical Professionals, National Institute of Health
eBook (ePub): $2.99
Childhood Arthritis (JA) also known as Juvenile arthritis is any form of arthritis or arthritis related conditions which affects individuals under the age of 16. Juvenile Arthritis is a chronic,... More > autoimmune disease affecting approximately 294 000-250 000 children and teens making juvenile arthritis one of the most common childhood diseases in the US. Three classifications of juvenile arthritis exist-juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA), and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) of which, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is the most common. Three main types of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis exit and classification is based upon symptoms, number of joints involved and the presence of antibodies in the blood. Polyarticular arthritis is the first type of arthritis which affects about 30-40% of children and is more common in girls than boys< Less
Complete Medical Guide for Disease Volume XIX; Marfan Syndrome By Medical Professionals, National Institute of Health
eBook (ePub): $1.99
Marfan syndrome (also called Marfan's syndrome) is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue. People with Marfan's tend to be unusually tall, with long limbs and long, thin fingers. The syndrome... More > is inherited as a dominant trait, carried by the gene FBN1, which encodes the connective protein fibrillin-1. People have a pair of FBN1 genes. Because it is dominant, people who have inherited one affected FBN1 gene from either parent will have Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome has a range of expressions, from mild to severe. The most serious complications are defects of the heart valves and aorta. It may also affect the lungs, the eyes, the dural sac surrounding the spinal cord, the skeleton and the hard palate. In addition to being a connective protein that forms the structural support for tissues outside the cell, the normal fibrillin-1 protein binds to another protein, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β).< Less
Complete Medical Guide for Disease Volume IV; Alopecia Areata By Medical Professionals, National Institute of Health
eBook (ePub): $1.99
Alopecia areata (AA) is a medical condition in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body, usually from the scalp. Because it causes bald spots on the scalp, especially in the first... More > stages, it is sometimes called spot baldness. In 1–2% of cases, the condition can spread to the entire scalp (Alopecia totalis) or to the entire epidermis (Alopecia universalis). Conditions resembling AA, and having a similar cause, occur also in other species. Alopecia areata is not contagious. It occurs more frequently in people who have affected family members, suggesting that heredity may be a factor. Strong evidence that genes may increase risk for alopecia areata was found by studying families with two or more affected members. This study identified at least four regions in the genome that are likely to contain alopecia areata genes. In addition, it is slightly more likely to occur in people who have relatives with autoimmune diseases.< Less
Complete Medical Guide for Disease Volume XII; Gout By Medical Professionals, National Institute of Health
eBook (ePub): $1.99
Gout (also known as podagra when it involves the big toe) is a medical condition usually characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis—a red, tender, hot, swollen joint.... More > The metatarsal-phalangeal joint at the base of the big toe is the most commonly affected (approximately 50% of cases). However, it may also present as tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy. It is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. The uric acid crystallizes, and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues. Clinical diagnosis is confirmed by seeing the characteristic crystals in joint fluid. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine improves symptoms. Once the acute attack subsides, levels of uric acid are usually lowered via lifestyle changes, and in those with frequent attacks, allopurinol or probenecid provide long-term prevention.< Less
Complete Medical Guide for Disease Volume X; Epidermolysis Bullosa By Medical Professionals, National Institute of Health
eBook (ePub): $2.99
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited connective tissue disease causing blisters in the skin and mucosal membranes, with an incidence of 1/50,000. Its severity ranges from mild to lethal. It is... More > caused by a mutation in the integrin α6β4 cell adhesion molecule on either the alpha or beta subunit. As a result, the skin is extremely fragile. Minor mechanical friction or trauma will separate the layers of the skin and form blisters. People with this condition have an increased risk of cancers of the skin, and many will eventually be diagnosed with it as a complication of the chronic damage done to the skin. The condition was brought to public attention in the UK through the Channel 4 documentary The Boy Whose Skin Fell Off, chronicling the life and death of Jonny Kennedy, an English man with EB. In the United States, the same could be said of the HBO documentary My Flesh and Blood from 2003.< Less
Complete Medical Guide for Disease Volume VII; Atopic Dermatitis By Medical Professionals, National Institute of Health
eBook (ePub): $2.99
Atopic dermatitis (AD, a type of eczema) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious and pruritic (that is, itchy) skin disorder. It has been given names like "prurigo... More > Besnier," "neurodermitis," "endogenous eczema," "flexural eczema," "infantile eczema," and "prurigo diathésique". The skin of a patient with atopic dermatitis reacts abnormally and easily to irritants, food, and environmental allergens and becomes red, flaky and very itchy. It also becomes vulnerable to surface infections caused by bacteria. The skin on the flexural surfaces of the joints (for example inner sides of elbows and knees) are the most commonly affected regions in people. Atopic dermatitis often occurs together with other atopic diseases like hay fever, asthma and allergic conjunctivitis. It is a familial and chronic disease and its symptoms can increase or disappear over time.< Less