Search Results: 'Library of Congress'

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177 results for "Library of Congress"
Library of Congress Subject Headings: Pre- vs. Post-Coordination and Related Issues By Library of Congress
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The Director for Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access at the Library of Congress requested a review of the pros and cons of pre- versus post-coordination of Library of Congress Subject Headings... More > (LCSH). There have been several studies of the pros and cons over the years, most notably by Elaine Svenonius and more recently by Lois Mai Chan and Arlene Taylor/Daniel Joudrey – included as appendices to this report. Briefly stated, pre-coordinated strings provide context, which is needed for “disambiguation, suggestibility, and precision”1 and browsability. Pre-coordinated strings have a sophisticated syntax that can express concepts better than single words, yet also can be faceted by systems to group topics into categories for post-coordinated displays when desirable. Post-coordinated terms have serious limitations for recall, precision, understanding, and relevance ranking....< Less
Terrorist and Organized Crime Groups: Tri-Border Area (TBA) of South America By Library of Congress
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This report assesses the activities of organized crime groups, terrorist groups, and narcotics traffickers in general in the Tri-Border Area (TBA) of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay, focusing mainly... More > on the period since 1999. Some of the related topics discussed, such as governmental and police corruption and anti-money-laundering laws, may also apply in part to the three TBA countries in general in addition to the TBA. This is unavoidable because the TBA cannot be discussed entirely as an isolated entity. Based entirely on open sources, this assessment has made extensive use of books, journal articles, and other reports available in the Library of Congress collections. It is based in part on the author’s earlier research paper entitled “Narcotics-Funded Terrorist/Extremist Groups in Latin America” (May 2002).< Less
Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) By The Library of Congress
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Congress is considering whether to permit drilling for oil and gas in the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Alaska, to designate the area as wilderness, or to retain the... More > status quo. This area is rich in wildlife and wilderness values, but may also contain significant oil and gas deposits. Efforts were made in the 107th to authorize oil and gas leasing in the coastal plain, or to designate the area as wilderness, but none passed. In the 108th Congress, H.R. 6 (and the similar H.R. 39) would authorize leasing in the Refuge; H.R. 770 and S. 543 would designate the area as wilderness. This report provides background on the legal issues surrounding the ANWR development-related proposals, and will be updated as circumstances warrant.< Less
Descriptive Cataloging Manual Z1: Name and Series Authority Records By Library of Congress
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These instructions address the creation and update of name and series authority records (NARs and SARs). They do not address subject authority records. For the purposes of this document,... More > “authority record” applies to both name and series authority records. “Authority file” applies only to the name and series authority records that constitute the LC/NACO authority file (LC/NAF). LC staff members and libraries participating in the Name Authority Cooperative (NACO) component of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) contribute records to the authority file. In constructing authorized access points, variants, and recording information, NACO participants and LC catalogers not working in the LC Database may make use of all records in the file against which the searching and cataloging is being done: OCLC, British Library, SkyRiver, etc. NACO participants may choose to use only LC records found in the file being searched.< Less
Algeria: Country Profile By Library of Congress
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Formal Name: People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria (Al Jumhuriyah al Jazairiyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah). Short Form: Algeria (Al Jazair). Term for Citizen(s): Algerian(s). Capital:... More > Algiers, with a population of about 1.7 million, or 3 million including suburbs, in 2004. Major Cities: After Algiers, the most populous cities are Oran, Constantine, and Annaba. According to 2004 estimates, Oran has a population of 700,000; Constantine, 350,000; and Annaba, 235,000. Independence: Algeria celebrates independence from France on July 5, 1962.< Less
Libya: Background and U.S. Relations By The Library of Congress, Christopher M. Blanchard
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Following the Libyan government’s December 2003 decision to eliminate its weapons of mass destruction and long range missile programs, a number of bilateral diplomatic exchanges have taken... More > place, and the termination of U.S. economic sanctions on Libya has paved the way for a renewal of investment by U.S. oil, gas, and energy service firms in Libya’s under-capitalized energy sector. Several visits to Libya by Bush Administration officials and Members of Congress in 2004 and 2005 have raised expectations of a formal reestablishment of normal relations between the U.S. and Libya in the near future, including the removal of the last remaining sanctions associated with Libya’s designation as a state sponsor of terrorism. Bilateral intelligence and counter-terrorism cooperation has contributed to a gradual U.S.-Libyan re-engagement on security matters since late 2001. Continuing U.S. concerns about Libya’s relationship with some Palestinian terrorist groups and an alleged ...< Less
Saudi Arabia: A Country Profile By Library of Congress, Federal Research Division
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Capital: Riyadh (estimated population 3.6 million). Major Cities: Population estimates for 2006 show continued growth for Saudi Arabia’s major urban areas: Jiddah (2.9 million), Mecca (1.6... More > million), Ad Dammam/Khobar/Dhahran (1.6 million), and Medina (854,500). Mecca and Medina have religious significance that far outweighs their respective populations. Independence: Following Ottoman dominance, Egypt controlled Arabia from 1818 to 1824. For the remainder of the nineteenth century, Egypt, Britain, and the Ottomans vied for control of the region. On September 23, 1932, Abd al Aziz ibn Abd ar-Rahman Al Saud established the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Unification brought together competing tribes into a modern state, covering an area approximating present boundaries.< Less
Singapore: A Country Profile By Library of Congress, Federal Research Division
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Capital: Singapore. Major Cities: Singapore is a city-state. The city of Singapore is located on the south-central coast of the island of Singapore, but urbanization has taken over most of the... More > territory of the island. Date of Independence: August 31, 1963, from Britain; August 9, 1965, from the Federation of Malaysia. National Public Holidays: New Year’s Day (January 1); Lunar New Year (movable date in January or February); Hari Raya Haji (Feast of the Sacrifice, movable date in February); Good Friday (movable date in March or April); Labour Day (May 1); Vesak Day (June 2); National Day or Independence Day (August 9); Deepavali (movable date in November); Hari Raya Puasa (end of Ramadan, movable date according to the Islamic lunar calendar); and Christmas (December 25).< Less
South Korea: A Country Profile By Library of Congress, Federal Research Division
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Capital: Seoul. 서울 Major Cities: The largest cities are Seoul (11 million), Pusan (3.9 million), Taegu (2.5 million), Inch’4n (2.4 million), Kwangju (1.4 million), and Taej4n (1.3... More > million). Independence: August 15, 1945, from Japanese occupation; Republic of Korea founded August 15, 1948. Public Holidays: New Year’s Day (January 1), Lunar New Year (movable date in January or February), Independence Movement Day (March 1), Arbor Day (April 5), Children’s Day (May 5), Birth of Buddha (movable date in April or May), Memorial Day (June 6), Constitution Day (July 17), Independence Day (August 15), Ch’us4k (an autumnal harvest festival and day of thanksgiving, movable date in September or October), National Foundation Day (October 3), and Christmas Day (December 25).< Less
Thailand: A Country Profile By Library of Congress, Federal Research Division
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Capital: Bangkok (in Thai, Krung Thep, ก������เทพ—City of Angels). Major Cities: The largest metropolitan area is the capital,... More > Bangkok, with an estimated 9.6 million inhabitants in 2002. According to the 2000 Thai census, 6.3 million people were living in the metropolitan area (combining Bangkok and Thon Buri). Other major cities, based on 2000 census data, include Samut Prakan (378,000), Nanthaburi (291,000), Udon Thani (220,000), and Nakhon Ratchasima (204,000). Fifteen other cities had populations of more than 100,000 in 2000. Independence: The traditional founding date is 1238. Unlike other nations in Southeast Asia, Thailand was never colonized.< Less