Search Results: 'Library of Congress'

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177 results for "Library of Congress"
Library of Congress Subject Headings: Pre- vs. Post-Coordination and Related Issues By Library of Congress
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The Director for Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access at the Library of Congress requested a review of the pros and cons of pre- versus post-coordination of Library of Congress Subject Headings... More > (LCSH). There have been several studies of the pros and cons over the years, most notably by Elaine Svenonius and more recently by Lois Mai Chan and Arlene Taylor/Daniel Joudrey – included as appendices to this report. Briefly stated, pre-coordinated strings provide context, which is needed for “disambiguation, suggestibility, and precision”1 and browsability. Pre-coordinated strings have a sophisticated syntax that can express concepts better than single words, yet also can be faceted by systems to group topics into categories for post-coordinated displays when desirable. Post-coordinated terms have serious limitations for recall, precision, understanding, and relevance ranking....< Less
Terrorist and Organized Crime Groups: Tri-Border Area (TBA) of South America By Library of Congress
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This report assesses the activities of organized crime groups, terrorist groups, and narcotics traffickers in general in the Tri-Border Area (TBA) of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay, focusing mainly... More > on the period since 1999. Some of the related topics discussed, such as governmental and police corruption and anti-money-laundering laws, may also apply in part to the three TBA countries in general in addition to the TBA. This is unavoidable because the TBA cannot be discussed entirely as an isolated entity. Based entirely on open sources, this assessment has made extensive use of books, journal articles, and other reports available in the Library of Congress collections. It is based in part on the author’s earlier research paper entitled “Narcotics-Funded Terrorist/Extremist Groups in Latin America” (May 2002).< Less
Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) By The Library of Congress
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Congress is considering whether to permit drilling for oil and gas in the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Alaska, to designate the area as wilderness, or to retain the... More > status quo. This area is rich in wildlife and wilderness values, but may also contain significant oil and gas deposits. Efforts were made in the 107th to authorize oil and gas leasing in the coastal plain, or to designate the area as wilderness, but none passed. In the 108th Congress, H.R. 6 (and the similar H.R. 39) would authorize leasing in the Refuge; H.R. 770 and S. 543 would designate the area as wilderness. This report provides background on the legal issues surrounding the ANWR development-related proposals, and will be updated as circumstances warrant.< Less
Descriptive Cataloging Manual Z1: Name and Series Authority Records By Library of Congress
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These instructions address the creation and update of name and series authority records (NARs and SARs). They do not address subject authority records. For the purposes of this document,... More > “authority record” applies to both name and series authority records. “Authority file” applies only to the name and series authority records that constitute the LC/NACO authority file (LC/NAF). LC staff members and libraries participating in the Name Authority Cooperative (NACO) component of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) contribute records to the authority file. In constructing authorized access points, variants, and recording information, NACO participants and LC catalogers not working in the LC Database may make use of all records in the file against which the searching and cataloging is being done: OCLC, British Library, SkyRiver, etc. NACO participants may choose to use only LC records found in the file being searched.< Less
Algeria: Country Profile By Library of Congress
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Formal Name: People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria (Al Jumhuriyah al Jazairiyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah). Short Form: Algeria (Al Jazair). Term for Citizen(s): Algerian(s). Capital:... More > Algiers, with a population of about 1.7 million, or 3 million including suburbs, in 2004. Major Cities: After Algiers, the most populous cities are Oran, Constantine, and Annaba. According to 2004 estimates, Oran has a population of 700,000; Constantine, 350,000; and Annaba, 235,000. Independence: Algeria celebrates independence from France on July 5, 1962.< Less
Libya: Background and U.S. Relations By The Library of Congress, Christopher M. Blanchard
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Following the Libyan government’s December 2003 decision to eliminate its weapons of mass destruction and long range missile programs, a number of bilateral diplomatic exchanges have taken... More > place, and the termination of U.S. economic sanctions on Libya has paved the way for a renewal of investment by U.S. oil, gas, and energy service firms in Libya’s under-capitalized energy sector. Several visits to Libya by Bush Administration officials and Members of Congress in 2004 and 2005 have raised expectations of a formal reestablishment of normal relations between the U.S. and Libya in the near future, including the removal of the last remaining sanctions associated with Libya’s designation as a state sponsor of terrorism. Bilateral intelligence and counter-terrorism cooperation has contributed to a gradual U.S.-Libyan re-engagement on security matters since late 2001. Continuing U.S. concerns about Libya’s relationship with some Palestinian terrorist groups and an alleged ...< Less
COUNTRY PROFILE: AFGHANISTAN By Library of Congress, Federal Research Division
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Formal Name: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (Dowlate EslamiyeAfghanestan). Short Form: Afghanistan. Term for Citizen(s): Afghan(s). Capital: Kabul. Major Cities: Herat (Hirat), Jalalabad, Kandahar... More > (Qandahar), Kondoz (Kunduz), and Mazare Sharif. Independence: Afghanistan recognizes its independence day as August 19, the date in 1919 when the country became fully independent of British rule.< Less
Australia: A Country Profile By Library of Congress, Federal Research Division
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Formal Name: Commonwealth of Australia. Short Form: Australia. Term for Citizen(s): Australian(s). Capital: Canberra. Major Cities: In order of size, the largest cities in Australia are Sydney (4.2... More > million), Melbourne (3.6 million), Brisbane (1.7 million), Perth (1.4 million), and Canberra (323,000). Independence: The British colonies of Australia were federated and the Commonwealth of Australia established on January 1, 1901.< Less
Bolivia: A Country Profile By Library of Congress, Federal Research Division
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Formal Name: Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia). Short Form: Bolivia. Term for Citizen(s): Bolivian(s). Capitals: La Paz (executive) and Sucre (judicial). Major Cities: Santa Cruz (1.3... More > million inhabitants), Cochabamba (900,000), El Alto (830,000), La Paz (810,000), and Sucre (225,000), according to 2005 projections. Independence: Led by “El Libertador,” Simón Bolívar Palacios, Bolivia gained complete independence from Spanish and Peruvian control in 1825. Despite nearly 200 coups and counter-coups, Bolivia has maintained its autonomy since independence. Public Holidays: The following are Bolivia’s federal holidays: New Year’s Day (January 1), Carnival (two days, variable dates in February or March), Good Friday (variable date in March or April), Labor Day (May 1), Corpus Christi (variable date in May or June), Independence Day (August 6), All Saints’ Day (November 1), Christmas (December 25). Each of Bolivia’s nine departments also has a holiday celebrating its inception.< Less
Bulgaria: A Country Profile By Library of Congress, Federal Research Division
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Formal Name: Republic of Bulgaria (Republika Bŭlgariya). Short Form: Bulgaria. Term for Citizens(s): Bulgarian(s). Capital: Sofia. Other Major Cities (in order of population): Plovdiv, Varna,... More > Burgas, Ruse, Stara Zagora, Pleven, and Sliven. Independence: Bulgaria recognizes its independence day as September 22, 1908, when the Kingdom of Bulgaria declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire. Public Holidays: Bulgaria celebrates the following national holidays: New Year’s (January 1); National Day (March 3); Orthodox Easter (variable date in April or early May); Labor Day (May 1); St. George’s Day or Army Day (May 6); Education Day (May 24); Unification Day (September 6); Independence Day (September 22); Leaders of the Bulgarian Revival Day (November 1); and Christmas (December 24–26).< Less