Ecology, like any science, has two aspects. One is the desire for knowledge for its own sake cognition ¬ tion, and in this respect the first place put search laws of nature, and their explanation... More > of the; the other - the use of collected knowledge for re ¬ sheniya problems associated with the environment. The rapid increase in the importance of ecology ¬ explains by the fact that none of the issues of vast practical importance at the present time can not be solved without taking into account the links between living and nonliving components in ¬ childbirth.
Practical way ecology can be seen primarily in matters of natural resources; ¬ names but it should establish a scientific basis for the exploitation of natural resources. We can say that disregard the laws underlying natural ¬ tion of natural processes, leading to a severe conf ¬ flict between man and nature.< Less
On the Principle of Population
Thomas Robert Malthus was born near Dorking, Surrey, England, Feb. 17, 1766, and after passing through the University of Cambridge was ordained, and... More > travelled on the Continent. His great work, "An Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society," was first published Anonymously in 1798, and five years later it appeared, under the title of "An Essay on the Principle of Population, or a View of its Past and Present Effect on Human Happiness, with an Enquiry into our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occasions," under the author's name. Malthus is one of the most persistently misrepresented of great thinkers, his central doctrine being nothing less moral than that young men should postpone marriage until they have the means of supporting a family.< Less
The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798 by Joseph Johnson. The author was soon identified as The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus.
While it was not the... More > first book on population, it has been acknowledged as the most influential work of its era. Its 6th Edition was independently cited as a key influence by both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in developing the theory of natural selection.
A key portion of the book was dedicated to what is now known as Malthus' Iron Law of Population – this name itself is retrospective, based on the iron law of wages, which is the reformulation of Malthus' position by Ferdinand Lassalle, who in turn derived the name from Goethe's "great, eternal iron laws" in Das Göttliche. This theory suggested that growing population rates would contribute to a rising supply of labour that would inevitably lower wages. In essence, Malthus feared that continued population growth would lend itself to poverty.< Less
Estimation is a procedure by which a numerical value or values are assigned to a population parameter based on the information collected from a sample. The assignment of value(s) to a population... More > parameter based on a value of the corresponding sample statistic is called estimation.< Less
(Thomas) Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was a British cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. His An Essay on the Principle of... More > Population observed that sooner or later population will be checked by famine and disease.
This Essay might, undoubtedly, have been rendered much more complete by a collection of a greater number of facts in elucidation of the general argument. But, joined to a desire (perhaps imprudent) of not delaying the publication much beyond the time that he originally proposed, prevented the Author from giving to the subject an undivided attention. He presumes, however, that the facts which he has adduced will be found to form no inconsiderable evidence for the truth of his opinion respecting the future improvement of mankind. As the Author contemplates this opinion at present, little more appears to him to be necessary than a plain statement, in addition to the most cursory view of society, to establish it.< Less