Perceptions that the pace of new-drug development has slowed and that the pharmaceutical industry is highly profitable have sparked concerns that significant problems loom for future drug... More > development. This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study—prepared at the request of the Senate Majority Leader—reviews basic facts about the drug industry’s recent spending on research and development (R&D) and its output of new drugs. The study also examines issues relating to the costs of R&D, the federal government’s role in pharmaceutical research, the performance of the pharmaceutical industry in developing innovative drugs, and the role of expected profits in private firms’ decisions about investing in drug R&D. In keeping with CBO’s mandate to provide objective, impartial analysis, the study makes no recommendations. David H. Austin prepared this report under the supervision of Joseph Kile and David Moore. Colin Baker provided valuable consultation...< Less
Immigration has been a subject of legislation since the nation’s founding. In 1790, the Congress established a formal process enabling the foreign born to become U.S. citizens. Just over a... More > century later, in response to increasing levels of immigration, the federal government assumed the task of reviewing and processing all immigrants seeking admission to the United States. Since then, numerous changes have been made to U.S. immigration policy. This paper, requested by the Chairman and Ranking Member of the Senate Finance Committee, is part of a series of reports by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) on immigration. The paper focuses on the evolution of U.S. immigration policy and presents statistics on the various categories of lawful admission and enforcement of the nation’s immigration laws.< Less
A scientific consensus is emerging that rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are gradually changing the Earth's climate, although the magnitude, timing, and effects of the alteration... More > remain very uncertain. The prospect of long-term climate change raises a variety of domestic and international economic policy issues on which there is little accord. Considerable disagreement exists about whether to control greenhouse gas emissions, and if so, how and by how much; and whether to coordinate climate-related policies at the international level, and if so, through what mechanisms. This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study presents an overview of issues related to climate change, focusing primarily on its economic aspects. The study draws from numerous published sources to summarize the current state of climate science and provide a conceptual framework for addressing climate change as an economic problem.< Less
Two combat-related conditions that affect some veterans who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan and that have generated widespread concern among policymakers are posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)... More > and traumatic brain injury (TBI). In response to a request from the Ranking Member of the House Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, this Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study examines the following: • The clinical care that the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the health care system within the Department of Veterans Affairs, provides for recent combat veterans; • VHA’s coordination with the Department of Defense for the care of service members returning from Iraq and Afghanistan; • The prevalence of PTSD and TBI among veterans of those conflicts and the occurrence of those conditions among recent combat veterans using VHA’s services; and • The costs to VHA of providing care to recent combat veterans for those conditions. In keeping with CBO’s mandate to provide objective, impartial analysis...< Less
To the Congress of the United States: This continues to be a time of challenge for our country. We face an economic crisis that has left millions of our neighbors jobless, and a political crisis that... More > has made things worse. Millions of Americans are looking for work. Across our country, families are doing their best just to scrape by—giving up nights out with the family to save on gas or make the mortgage, or postponing retirement to send a child to college. These men and women grew up with faith in an America where hard work and responsibility paid off. They believed in a country where everyone gets a fair shake and does their fair share; they believed that if you worked hard and played by the rules, you would be rewarded with a decent salary and good benefits. If you did the right thing, you could make it in America.< Less
A prominent part of the Bush Administration’s strategy for national defense is developing and fielding defenses against ballistic missiles. To that end, the Department of Defense’s... More > Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is pursuing a layered defense composed of various systems capable of intercepting ballistic missiles at different points in their flight. For the past several years, work has primarily focused on intercepting long-range missiles during their midcourse phase (after their booster rockets have burned out but before their warheads have reentered the atmosphere). MDA plans to field initial elements of a midcourse system this year. Recently, the agency also began an effort to develop interceptors capable of hitting intercontinental ballistic missiles during their boost phase (the first few minutes after launch, before their booster rockets burn out).< Less
Where the President has failed, House Republicans will lead. This budget helps spur job creation today, stops spending money the government doesn’t have, and lifts the crushing burden of debt.... More > This plan puts the budget on the path to balance and the economy on the path to prosperity.< Less
The primary goal of the manuscript is to enhance public awareness, understanding of the details about Budgets and Budgeting – and hopefully the public will act and react to the drain and... More > strain of public funds in India or anywhere else. Learn about Alien and Monster Budgets...lets take the mystery out of Budgets & Budgeting and become proactive participants in how our money – public funds are spent, its just another step to check rampant misuse of public money.< Less
This book is one of the most valuable resources in the world when it comes to ways to learn how to better your finances by budgeting
Why Knowing About Budgeting Is Crucial!
The budget exercise... More > allows every individual with an income and expenses portfolio to make decisions about how they can best allocate the income to serve the expenses and yet leave some for the future, which may include a suitable retirement plan, a healthy savings plan or just about anything that won’t break the bank.
Budgeting helps to create a very visible short term expense scenario, which would include the payments of monthly bills and commitments.
And the worst part? The more you put it off, the deeper you get in debt!< Less