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Women in Prehistoric Indo European Society By Paul Proulx
eBook (PDF): $0.00
Throughout the 19th century scholars believed that the Proto Indo European (PIE) society had cross cousin marriage, matrilineal descent, and matriarchy (a female version of patriarchy). Then by the... More > middle of the 20th century, the backlash was proclaiming just the opposite: that PIE society was patrilineal and patriarchical, and had husband centered residence. Friedrich (1966:9) even speculated that "widows may have been marked for some mortuary ritual; sacrifice and interment with the husband." Now new insights suggest that the 19th century scholars may have been closer to right than the later ones. The evidence for husband centered residence and patriliny does not withstand critical examination, and, although there is no evidence of matriarchy, the evidence for wife centered residence is good. Matriliny too seems very likely, and women evidently had important active roles cementing family alliances. The trail of these new insights begins among the eastern Algonquian peoples...< Less
The Thin Edge of the Sexist Wedge: Lexically reconstructed Algonquian and Quechua case histories, illustrating the original causes of sexual stratification in Neolithic society By Paul Proulx
eBook (PDF): $10.00
Using information unconsciously encoded into languages, I ask "How do women + men get (or fail to get) respect within their societies?" I start with a simple prehistoric Algonquian society... More > where women gathered plant foods while men hunted, + both got approximately equal respect. Some changes in warfare, economy, + social organization over the centuries had major impacts upon the social statuses of women vs men, while others did not. I also examine the prehistoric Quechua farmers of a thousand years earlier. They developed a sophisticated agriculture using irrigated terraces, incorporated many tribes into the largest empire the world had yet seen, + then were plunged into feudal oppression by the Spanish Conquest. They are especially interesting because -- contrary to the predictions of most theories -- they have maintained an equality of the sexes typical of simple societies that gather + hunt. I also discuss Proto Indo European society, sex gender, + the origin of matrilineal organization.< Less
Warfare and Women in a Set of Prehistoric Kin Based Societies: Lenapean (Algonquian) By Paul Proulx
eBook (PDF): $10.00
(1 Ratings)
In populous kin-based societies, intense competition for scarce resources may lead to very high rates of male mortality, making men unreliable as links in a living social network. This favors the... More > step by step replacement of men by women as links through which vital relationships are traced, and marriages which maintain links to a person's uterine relatives (mother's or sister's family). In such circumstances, men attempt to assert control over women in the domestic sphere in order to manipulate affinal male kinship loyalties, but in other respects the status of women tends to remain high, evidently due to the importance of women as links in the social organization, their roles as substitutes for dead men, and their roles in matridominant subsistence agriculture. These developments are exemplified in one or more of three late prehistoric Algonquian societies of the Lenapean group located on the Eastern seabord: Medial, Coastal, and Subboreal.< Less
Prehistoric Social Organization Before and After Agriculture: the lexically reconstructed story of Central Algonquian society, showing the transformation of a bilateral forager kindred into an agricultural patrilineal tribe in a resource rich natural envir By Paul Proulx
eBook (PDF): $10.00
(1 Ratings)
The book presents a detailed account of the transformation in social organization that came with the adoption of subsistence agriculture by the foragers who lived in one resource rich area of the... More > planet (the Lower Great Lakes). The technique used is lexical reconstruction, correlated where possible with archaeological data. My research suggests that in simple societies whose politics are all kin based, the kinship terminology serves as an oral constitution, amendments to which involve new terms with pertinent etymologies. By carefully noting the etymologies of innovations, one can reconstruct prehistoric social change.< Less
Proto Algo-Wiyot and the Society that Spoke it By Paul Proulx
eBook (PDF): $10.00
Proto Algic society (c. 6000 B.C.) had a new norm of wife centered residence, which suggests a high male mortality from intensive external warfare. After the departure of the Yuroks from the Proto... More > Algic homeland, Algo-Wiyot society passed through two reconstructible stages, each with higher male mortality. This provoked a complete reworking of their social organization, produced equality between parents and children, and brought some exotic features like oblique marriage. Very high male mortality also removed fathers of young adults from the society, and they were thus unable to dominate their adult children, much less to transfer domination of their daughters to a husband or brother. Despite high prestige for males, PAW society probably had Neither Dominant domestic relations.< Less
Some Prehistoric Algonquian Cultural Vocabulary By Paul Proulx
eBook (PDF): $0.00
(2 Ratings)
Most Proto Algonquian reconstructions published to date, and the data supporting them, are found in George F. Aubin's Proto Algonquian Dictionary (Aubin 1975). Most of the Proto Central Algonquian... More > or Proto Lake ones are found in John Hewson's Computer-Generated Dictionary of Proto Algonquian (Hewson 1993). Those I have newly reconstructed or substantively revised in the course of my linguistic paleontology are presented here. Most are the names of game animals or useful plants, but some other terms of cultural interest are included. Pseudo proto terms are so called because they're likely based on loans postdating the proto language in whose phonology they're written.< Less
The Prehistoric Quechuas By Paul Proulx
eBook (PDF): $0.00
Resumen. Abarco dos temas principales, prehistoria y organización social. A lo largo de los más de mil años entre proto quechua y el reino de los Incas, se ve una... More > progresión cultural de un pueblo que recién había vivido de la recolecta, caza, pesca, y un poco de agricultura, que por su proliferación demográfica se vio obligado de depender cada vez más sobre la agricultura. Sin embargo, la estratificación social del imperio Inca ha sido bastante distinto en carácter a todos los demás imperios que se conocen, tanto en el nuevo mundo como en el viejo. El segundo tema es su organización social. Para los Quechuas meridionales y costeros, reconstruyo ascendencías bilaterales llamados ayllus, una preferencia por casarse dentro del ayllu y de la aldea, hogares independientes (neolocales) colocados cerca de la mejor tierra heredada sea por la esposa o el marido, ascendencia paralela, y grupos matrilineales llamados panacas.< Less
An African Woman's Struggle to Live: The Writings of Beatrice Vuhugwa By Beatrice Vuhugwa
eBook (PDF): $7.29
(2 Ratings)
The life of an African woman is not an easy one. Her husband and his family have power over her nearly equal to that of gods. Burdened with multiple responsibilities, it is always a struggle to... More > survive and to achieve a better life for her children. Beatrice M Vuhugwa (Eldoret, Rift Valley Province, Kenya) faced some additional challenges. She was raised in a poor family, where her father took out his many frustrations in vicious beatings of her mother. As refugees, they were subject to suspicions and discrimination. Beatrice herself has suffered multiple interventions for a cancerous growth in the neck. Her encounters with the limited health care system of her country, and the financial difficulties it brought, again and again brought her to the brink of despair. In the midsts of this, Beatrice again found herself pregnant. Against advise, she has carried her pregnancy to term and is raising a baby daughter.< Less
General Bibliography By Paul Proulx
eBook (PDF): $0.00
This is a bibliography of nearly everything I have ever cited anywhere (as of the end of Aug. ‘05). It is meant to be used in conjunction with papers or monographs from which I have either... More > totally omitted the “works cited” section, or limited it to a few items that seem particularly relevant. The e-version is probaby adequate for these purposes, but a printed version is also available.< Less
Women in Prehistoric Indo European Society By Paul Proulx
Paperback: $10.43
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Throughout the 19th century scholars believed that the Proto Indo European (PIE) society had cross cousin marriage, matrilineal descent, and matriarchy (a female version of patriarchy). Then by the... More > middle of the 20th century, the backlash was proclaiming just the opposite: that PIE society was patrilineal and patriarchical, and had husband centered residence. Friedrich (1966:9) even speculated that "widows may have been marked for some mortuary ritual; sacrifice and interment with the husband." Now new insights suggest that the 19th century scholars may have been closer to right than the later ones. The evidence for husband centered residence and patriliny does not withstand critical examination, and, although there is no evidence of matriarchy, the evidence for wife centered residence is good. Matriliny too seems very likely, and women evidently had important active roles cementing family alliances. The trail of these new insights begins among the eastern Algonquian peoples...< Less