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A Treatise Of Gnomonicks By Jacques Ozanam
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Ozanam was a mathematician famous for his popular math texts. These included a math dictionary, a course of mathematics, and a text on mathematical and physical recreations. The last of these went... More > through at least 18 editions over 2 centuries. Ozanam's dialing was instructive and entertaining - it includes innovative ideas such as a geographic sundial showing the time anywhere in the world, various universal horizontal dials, and the first suggestion that one's own body could be the gnomon of an analemmatic dial. His texts also cover altitude, azimuth, lunar, reflection, refraction, portable and stereographic projection dials – all in addition to the standard instruction in drawing sundials on any plane. This treatise is from the 1712 English translation (by the noted Newtonian scholar J.T. Desaguliers) of Ozanam's 1693 Course of Mathematics. The addendum is a 1708 English translation of the set of Problems of Dialling included in the 1st edition (1694) of his Recreations Mathematical & Physical.< Less
Posthuma Fosteri: The Description Of A Ruler (1652) By Samuel Foster
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This book was published posthumously in the year that Foster died. It describes a ruler with 9 scales and gives instructions on how to use the scales to solve many of the standard problems of... More > “astronomie, navigation, and dialling”. In addition to familiar trigonometric scales, the ruler includes two new scales introduced by Foster. The first provides an easy means of laying out horizontal sundials between 30º and 60º of latitude without having to draw any auxiliary lines. The second is a true Foster innovation: with this scale and a chord scale, Foster is able to find all the elements needed to draw a sundial on an arbitrary plane. He also uses these scales to replace the usual dialing scales (also a Foster invention), laying out a sundial from equispaced points on the circumference of a circle. One page of the current edition includes a redrawn version of the ruler that the reader can use in conjunction with the text.< Less
The Art Of Dialling By The Gnomical Scale (1679) By Samuel Sturmy
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This is the seventh book from Sturmy’s very popular The Mariners Magazine – a warehouse of valuable information for English mariners. Sturmy’s work originally appeared in 1669, and... More > subsequently went through 3 more editions, “diligently revised and carefully corrected” by mathematician John Colson. This is the second edition. Sturmy’s ‘gnomical scale’ is equivalent to the dialing scales that became popular in the 17th century. (Unlike other entries in the collection, this reprint is done with modern fonts; the graphics are facsimile reproductions).< Less
Elliptical, Or Azimuthal Horologiography (1654) By Samuel Foster
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This brilliant work, far ahead of its time, details Foster’s development of analemmatic, circular, and diametral sundials and their generalizations. (The title appeared earlier in compressed... More > format as part of The Analemmatic Sundial Sourcebook – it is available here as a separate volume.) Its four sections are: Elliptical, Or Azimuthal Horologiography; Circular Horologiography; Rectilineal Or Diametral Horologiography; Elliptical Horologiography. It was prepared for the press by Edmund Wingate and John Twysden two years after Foster’s death.< Less
A New And Easie Method To The Art Of Dyalling (1688) By Thomas Strode
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To The Reader. Courteous Reader, This was chiefly composed for some near Relations; but the Method being Natural, Easie, and not Common, I think I ought to communicate, and not to Bury it with me. ... More > I do not Publish this as to prefer it before Trigonometrical Calculation of Dyals, for no way can be Exacter than that; but this is to save that Labour in Young Beginners, lest they should be dejected with the tediousness of the other: And this Discourse but little short in Exactness with that.…< Less
The Spot-Dial (1687) By Gilbert Clerke
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Clerke (1626-1697?) gave private lessons in the mathematical arts and produced custom-made sundials. In 1682 he published Oughtredus explicatus, an edition of William Oughtred’s famous 1647... More > algebra textbook Clavis Mathematica. Clerke added a section on dialling, in which he described his invention of the spot-dial. Some years later, he was prevailed upon to write this brief English treatment of the dial. “The Use of this Dial is to see the Hour by the Rays of the Sun passing through a Hole, and terminated in a Glass set in a Frame within the House against the Window, the Ground of it is the same with that of the Sun’s Light passing through a Hole in the Window, and intercepted by a String, and of the Ceiling-Dial, where the Reflecting-Glass is supposed to be a Point in the Style.”< Less
Dialling. Or The Art Of Drawing Dials (1770) By William Emerson
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Emerson (1701-82) was a schoolteacher and mathematician. He became well known for his “comprehensive grasp of all existing knowledge in all branches of his subject”. He published a... More > defense of Newton’s Principia and authored a textbook on fluxions (calculus). Even 80 years after his death, “the works of this able mathematician…[were] still in high estimation”. “[T]he first section contains the grounds of this art; by shewing how the several requisites are to be found… from the principles of spherical trigonometry. The second section contains the practice, and that three different ways. 1. Geometrically, by rule and compass, which depends upon the gnomonic projection of the sphere… 2. By trigonometrical calculation… which is the most exact way. 3. By the lines upon Collin’s Dialling scale, which is a method extremely easy and ready. The third section shews the way of making some other sorts of dials; and drawing the furniture upon any common diall.”< Less
The Art Of Dialling (1638) By Samuel Foster
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Samuel Foster’s The Art of Dialling is particularly noteworthy for two reasons. First, it contains the first appearance of dialing scales. For over two centuries following Foster, the latitude... More > and hour scales he introduces in this book were recognized as providing the simplest means for laying out hour lines. Although George Serle was probably the first to put the scales on a ruler, he himself clearly attributes their invention to Foster. Second, it includes an interesting approach to drawing a dial on an arbitrary plane: Foster demonstrates how any plane can be treated as though it were the special case of a direct east - west plane, and then he completely solves the special case. This book consists of a facsimile reprint of the 1638 edition of The Art of Dialling. It also includes the full text of the 1675 edition produced by Leybourn and a paragraph by paragraph comparison of the two.< Less